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By Details > Visit Detail > Country Facts for Senegal
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Map of Senegal
IntroductionTop
Background:Independent from France in 1960, Senegal joined with The Gambia to form the nominal confederation of Senegambia in 1982. However, the envisaged integration of the two countries was never carried out, and the union was dissolved in 1989. Despite peace talks, a southern separatist group sporadically has clashed with government forces since 1982. Senegal has a long history of participating in international peacekeeping.
GeographyTop
Location:Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Guinea-Bissau and Mauritania
Geographic coordinates:14 00 N, 14 00 W
Map references:Africa
Area:total: 196,190 sq km
land: 192,000 sq km
water: 4,190 sq km

Area - comparative:slightly smaller than South Dakota
Land boundaries:total: 2,640 km
border countries: The Gambia 740 km, Guinea 330 km, Guinea-Bissau 338 km, Mali 419 km, Mauritania 813 km

Coastline:531 km
Maritime claims:territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin

Climate:tropical; hot, humid; rainy season (May to November) has strong southeast winds; dry season (December to April) dominated by hot, dry, harmattan wind
Terrain:generally low, rolling, plains rising to foothills in southeast
Elevation extremes:lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed feature near Nepen Diakha 581 m

Natural resources:fish, phosphates, iron ore
Land use:arable land: 12.78%
permanent crops: 0.21%
other: 87.01% (2001)

Irrigated land:710 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:lowlands seasonally flooded; periodic droughts
Environment - current issues:wildlife populations threatened by poaching; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; overfishing
Environment - international agreements:party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
Geography - note:westernmost country on the African continent; The Gambia is almost an enclave within Senegal
PeopleTop
Population:11,126,832 (July 2005 est.)
Age structure:0-14 years: 42.8% (male 2,404,461/female 2,360,167)
15-64 years: 54.1% (male 2,901,689/female 3,122,854)
65 years and over: 3% (male 161,173/female 176,488) (2005 est.)

Median age:total: 18.15 years
male: 17.6 years
female: 18.7 years (2005 est.)

Population growth rate:2.48% (2005 est.)
Birth rate:35.21 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Death rate:10.6 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Net migration rate:0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Sex ratio:at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.91 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2005 est.)

Infant mortality rate:total: 55.51 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 59.17 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 51.75 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:total population: 56.75 years
male: 55.04 years
female: 58.52 years (2005 est.)

Total fertility rate:4.75 children born/woman (2005 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:0.8% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:44,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:3,500 (2003 est.)
Nationality:noun: Senegalese (singular and plural)
adjective: Senegalese

Ethnic groups:Wolof 43.3%, Pular 23.8%, Serer 14.7%, Jola 3.7%, Mandinka 3%, Soninke 1.1%, European and Lebanese 1%, other 9.4%
Religions:Muslim 94%, indigenous beliefs 1%, Christian 5% (mostly Roman Catholic)
Languages:French (official), Wolof, Pulaar, Jola, Mandinka
Literacy:definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 40.2%
male: 50%
female: 30.7% (2003 est.)

GovernmentTop
Country name:conventional long form: Republic of Senegal
conventional short form: Senegal
local long form: Republique du Senegal
local short form: Senegal

Government type:republic under multiparty democratic rule
Capital:Dakar
Administrative divisions:11 regions (regions, singular - region); Dakar, Diourbel, Fatick, Kaolack, Kolda, Louga, Matam, Saint-Louis, Tambacounda, Thies, Ziguinchor
Independence:4 April 1960 (from France); note - complete independence was achieved upon dissolution of federation with Mali on 20 August 1960
National holiday:Independence Day, 4 April (1960)
Constitution:a new constitution was adopted 7 January 2001
Legal system:based on French civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Court; the Council of State audits the government's accounting office; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:chief of state: President Abdoulaye WADE (since 1 April 2000)
head of government: Prime Minister Macky SALL (since 21 April 2004)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister in consultation with the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term under new constitution; election last held under prior constitution (seven-year terms) 27 February and 19 March 2000 (next to be held February 2007); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Abdoulaye WADE elected president; percent of vote in the second round of voting - Abdoulaye WADE (PDS) 58.49%, Abdou DIOUF (PS) 41.51%

Legislative branch:unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (120 seats; members are elected by direct, popular vote to serve five-year terms)
note: the former National Assembly, dissolved in the spring of 2001, had 140 seats
elections: last held 29 April 2001 (next to be held NA 2006)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - SOPI Coalition 89, AFP 11, PS 10, other 10

Judicial branch:Constitutional Court; Council of State; Court of Final Appeals or Cour de Cassation; Court of Appeals; note - the judicial system was reformed in 1992
Political parties and leaders:African Party for Democracy and Socialism or And Jef (also known as PADS/AJ) [Landing SAVANE, secretary general]; African Party of Independence [Majhemout DIOP]; Alliance of Forces of Progress or AFP [Moustapha NIASSE]; Democratic and Patriotic Convention or CDP (also known as Garab-Gi) [Dr. Iba Der THIAM]; Democratic League-Labor Party Movement or LD-MPT [Dr. Abdoulaye BATHILY]; Front for Socialism and Democracy or FSD [Cheikh Abdoulaye DIEYE]; Gainde Centrist Bloc or BGC [Jean-Paul DIAS]; Independence and Labor Party or PIT [Amath DANSOKHO]; National Democratic Rally or RND [Madier DIOUF]; Senegalese Democratic Party or PDS [Abdoulaye WADE]; Socialist Party or PS [Ousmane Tanor DIENG]; SOPI Coalition (a coalition led by the PDS) [Abdoulaye WADE]; Union for Democratic Renewal or URD [Djibo Leyti KA]; other small parties
Political pressure groups and leaders:labor; Muslim brotherhoods; students; teachers
International organization participation:ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, ECOWAS, FAO, FZ, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MIGA, MONUC, NAM, OIC, ONUB, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIK, UNMIL, UNMOVIC, UNOCI, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Flag description:three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red with a small green five-pointed star centered in the yellow band; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia
EconomyTop
Economy - overview:In January 1994, Senegal undertook a bold and ambitious economic reform program with the support of the international donor community. This reform began with a 50% devaluation of Senegal's currency, the CFA franc, which was linked at a fixed rate to the French franc. Government price controls and subsidies have been steadily dismantled. After seeing its economy contract by 2.1% in 1993, Senegal made an important turnaround, thanks to the reform program, with real growth in GDP averaging 5% annually during 1995-2003. Annual inflation had been pushed down to the low single digits. As a member of the West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU), Senegal is working toward greater regional integration with a unified external tariff and a more stable monetary policy. Senegal still relies heavily upon outside donor assistance, however. Under the IMF's Highly Indebted Poor Countries debt relief program, Senegal will benefit from eradication of two-thirds of its bilateral, multilateral, and private sector debt.
GDP:purchasing power parity - $18.36 billion (2004 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:3.2% (2004 est.)
GDP - per capita:purchasing power parity - $1,700 (2004 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:agriculture: 15.9%
industry: 21.4%
services: 62.7% (2004 est.)

Labor force:4.65 million (2004 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:agriculture 70%
Unemployment rate:48% (urban youth 40%) (2001 est.)
Population below poverty line:54% (2001 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: 2.6%
highest 10%: 33.5% (1995)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:41.3 (1995)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):0.8% (2004 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):20.1% of GDP (2004 est.)
Budget:revenues: $1.572 billion
expenditures: $1.627 billion, including capital expenditures of $357 million (2004 est.)

Public debt:55.2% of GDP (2004 est.)
Agriculture - products:peanuts, millet, corn, sorghum, rice, cotton, tomatoes, green vegetables; cattle, poultry, pigs; fish
Industries:agricultural and fish processing, phosphate mining, fertilizer production, petroleum refining, construction materials, ship construction and repair
Industrial production growth rate:4.7% (2004 est.)
Electricity - production:1.737 billion kWh (2002)
Electricity - production by source:fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:1.615 billion kWh (2002)
Electricity - exports:0 kWh (2002)
Electricity - imports:0 kWh (2002)
Oil - production:0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:31,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:NA
Oil - imports:NA
Natural gas - production:50 million cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:50 million cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:0 cu m (2001 est.)
Current account balance:$-518.8 million (2004 est.)
Exports:$1.374 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Exports - commodities:fish, groundnuts (peanuts), petroleum products, phosphates, cotton
Exports - partners:India 13.8%, France 10.6%, Mali 10%, Italy 6%, Cote d'Ivoire 5.7%, Spain 4% (2004)
Imports:$2.128 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Imports - commodities:food and beverages, capital goods, fuels
Imports - partners:France 26.2%, Nigeria 12.1%, Thailand 5.3%, Belgium 5%, Spain 4.2% (2004)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:$820 million (2004 est.)
Debt - external:$3.476 billion (2004 est.)
Currency (code):Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XOF); note - responsible authority is the Central Bank of the West African States
Currency code:XOF
Exchange rates:Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 528.29 (2004), 581.2 (2003), 696.99 (2002), 733.04 (2001), 711.98 (2000)
Fiscal year:calendar year
CommunicationsTop
Telephones - main lines in use:228,800 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular:575,900 (2003)
Telephone system:general assessment: good system
domestic: above-average urban system; microwave radio relay, coaxial cable and fiber-optic cable in trunk system
international: country code - 221; 4 submarine cables; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:AM 8, FM 20, shortwave 1 (2001)
Radios:1.24 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations:1 (1997)
Televisions:361,000 (1997)
Internet country code:.sn
Internet hosts:672 (2003)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):1 (2002)
Internet users:225,000 (2003)
TransportationTop
Railways:total: 906 km
narrow gauge: 906 km 1.000-meter gauge (2004)

Highways:total: 14,576 km
paved: 4,271 km including 7 km of expressways
unpaved: 10,305 km (2000)

Waterways:1,000 km (primarily on Senegal, Saloum, and Casamance rivers) (2003)
Pipelines:gas 564 km (2004)
Ports and harbors:Dakar, Kaolack, Matam, Podor, Richard Toll, Saint-Louis, Ziguinchor
Airports:20 (2004 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:total: 9
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:total: 11
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 1 (2004 est.)

MilitaryTop
Military branches:Army, Navy (Marine Senegalaise), Air Force (2005)
Military manpower - military age and obligation:18 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; conscript service obligation - 2 years (2004)
Military manpower - availability:males age 18-49: 2,183,343 (2005 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:males age 18-49: 1,300,502 (2005 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:males: 124,096 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:$107.3 million (2004)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:1.5% (2004)
Transnational IssuesTop
Disputes - international:The Gambia and Guinea-Bissau attempt to stem Senegalese citizens from the Casamance region fleeing separatist violence, cross border raids, and arms smuggling
Refugees and internally displaced persons::IDPs: 17,000 (clashes between government troops and separatists in Casamance region) (2004)
Illicit drugs:transshipment point for Southwest and Southeast Asian heroin and South American cocaine moving to Europe and North America; illicit cultivator of cannabis



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