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By Location > Visit Detail > Country Facts for Monaco
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Map of Monaco
Background:Economic development was spurred in the late 19th century with a railroad linkup to France and the opening of a casino. Since then, the principality's mild climate, splendid scenery, and gambling facilities have made Monaco world famous as a tourist and recreation center.
Location:Western Europe, bordering the Mediterranean Sea on the southern coast of France, near the border with Italy
Geographic coordinates:43 44 N, 7 24 E
Map references:Europe
Area:total: 1.95 sq km
land: 1.95 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:about three times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries:total: 4.4 km
border countries: France 4.4 km

Coastline:4.1 km
Maritime claims:territorial sea: 12 nm
Climate:Mediterranean with mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers
Terrain:hilly, rugged, rocky
Elevation extremes:lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Mont Agel 140 m

Natural resources:none
Land use:arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 100% (urban area) (2001)

Irrigated land:NA sq km
Natural hazards:NA
Environment - current issues:NA
Environment - international agreements:party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note:second-smallest independent state in the world (after Holy See); almost entirely urban
Population:32,409 (July 2005 est.)
Age structure:0-14 years: 15.5% (male 2,563/female 2,445)
15-64 years: 62.1% (male 9,909/female 10,217)
65 years and over: 22.4% (male 2,972/female 4,303) (2005 est.)

Median age:total: 45.25 years
male: 43.27 years
female: 47.19 years (2005 est.)

Population growth rate:0.43% (2005 est.)
Birth rate:9.26 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Death rate:12.71 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Net migration rate:7.71 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female
total population: 0.91 male(s)/female (2005 est.)

Infant mortality rate:total: 5.43 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 6.29 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4.53 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:total population: 79.57 years
male: 75.7 years
female: 83.63 years (2005 est.)

Total fertility rate:1.76 children born/woman (2005 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:NA%
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths:NA
Nationality:noun: Monegasque(s) or Monacan(s)
adjective: Monegasque or Monacan

Ethnic groups:French 47%, Monegasque 16%, Italian 16%, other 21%
Religions:Roman Catholic 90%
Languages:French (official), English, Italian, Monegasque
Literacy:definition: NA
total population: 99%
male: NA%
female: NA%

Country name:conventional long form: Principality of Monaco
conventional short form: Monaco
local long form: Principaute de Monaco
local short form: Monaco

Government type:constitutional monarchy
Administrative divisions:none; there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are four quarters (quartiers, singular - quartier); Fontvieille, La Condamine, Monaco-Ville, Monte-Carlo
Independence:1419 (beginning of the rule by the House of Grimaldi)
National holiday:National Day (Prince of Monaco Holiday), 19 November
Constitution:17 December 1962
Legal system:based on French law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:21 years of age; universal
Executive branch:chief of state: Prince ALBERT II (since 6 April 2005)
head of government: Minister of State Jean-Paul PROUST (since 1 June 2005)
cabinet: Council of Government is under the authority of the monarch
elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary; minister of state appointed by the monarch from a list of three French national candidates presented by the French Government

Legislative branch:unicameral National Council or Conseil National (24 seats; 16 members elected by list majority system, 8 by proportional representation; to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 9 February 2003 (next to be held February 2008)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - UNAM 21, UND 3

Judicial branch:Supreme Court or Tribunal Supreme (judges appointed by the monarch on the basis of nominations by the National Council)
Political parties and leaders:National and Democratic Union or UND [Jean-Louis CAMPORA]; Union for Monaco or UPM (including National Union for the Future of Monaco or UNAM) [leader NA]
Political pressure groups and leaders:NA
International organization participation:ACCT, CE, FAO, IAEA, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IFRCS, IHO, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ITU, OPCW, OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNITAR, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO
Flag description:two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; similar to the flag of Indonesia which is longer and the flag of Poland which is white (top) and red
Economy - overview:Monaco, bordering France on the Mediterranean coast, is a popular resort, attracting tourists to its casino and pleasant climate. In 2001, a major construction project extended the pier used by cruise ships in the main harbor. The principality has successfully sought to diversify into services and small, high-value-added, nonpolluting industries. The state has no income tax and low business taxes and thrives as a tax haven both for individuals who have established residence and for foreign companies that have set up businesses and offices. The state retains monopolies in a number of sectors, including tobacco, the telephone network, and the postal service. Living standards are high, roughly comparable to those in prosperous French metropolitan areas. Monaco does not publish national income figures; the estimates below are extremely rough.
GDP:purchasing power parity - $870 million (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:0.9% (2000 est.)
GDP - per capita:purchasing power parity - $27,000 (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:agriculture: 17%
industry: NA%
services: NA% (2001 est.)

Labor force:30,540 (January 1994)
Unemployment rate:22% (1999)
Population below poverty line:NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):1.9% (2000)
Budget:revenues: $518 million
expenditures: $531 million, including capital expenditures of NA (1995)

Agriculture - products:none
Industries:tourism, construction, small-scale industrial and consumer products
Industrial production growth rate:NA%
Electricity - consumption:NA kWh
Electricity - imports:NA kWh
note: electricity supplied by France

Exports:$NA; full customs integration with France, which collects and rebates Monegasque trade duties; also participates in EU market system through customs union with France
Imports:$NA; full customs integration with France, which collects and rebates Monegasque trade duties; also participates in EU market system through customs union with France
Debt - external:$18 billion (2000 est.)
Currency (code):euro (EUR)
Currency code:EUR
Exchange rates:euros per US dollar - 0.8054 (2004), 0.886 (2003), 1.0626 (2002), 1.1175 (2001), 1.0854 (2000)
Fiscal year:calendar year
Telephones - main lines in use:33,700 (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular:19,300 (2002)
Telephone system:general assessment: modern automatic telephone system
domestic: NA
international: country code - 377; no satellite earth stations; connected by cable into the French communications system

Radio broadcast stations:AM 1, FM NA, shortwave 8 (1998)
Radios:34,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations:5 (1998)
Televisions:25,000 (1997)
Internet country
Internet hosts:533 (2004)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):2 (2000)
Internet users:16,000 (2002)
Highways:total: 50 km
paved: 50 km
unpaved: 0 km (1999 est.)

Ports and harbors:Monaco
Merchant marine:registered in other countries: 54 (2005)
Airports:none; linked to the airport at Nice, France by helicopter service (2004 est.)
Heliports:1 (shuttle service between the international airport at Nice, France, and Monaco's heliport at Fontvieille) (2004 est.)
Military note:defense is the responsibility of France; the Palace Guard performs ceremonial duties (2003)
Transnational IssuesTop
Disputes - international:none

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