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Map of Turkey
IntroductionTop
Background:Modern Turkey was founded in 1923 from the Anatolian remnants of the defeated Ottoman Empire by national hero Mustafa KEMAL, who was later honored with the title Ataturk, or "Father of the Turks." Under his authoritarian leadership, the country adopted wide-ranging social, legal, and political reforms. After a period of one-party rule, an experiment with multi-party politics led to the 1950 election victory of the opposition Democratic Party and the peaceful transfer of power. Since then, Turkish political parties have multiplied, but democracy has been fractured by periods of instability and intermittent military coups (1960, 1971, 1980), which in each case eventually resulted in a return of political power to civilians. In 1997, the military again helped engineer the ouster - popularly dubbed a "post-modern coup" - of the then Islamic-oriented government. Turkey intervened militarily on Cyprus in 1974 to prevent a Greek takeover of the island and has since acted as patron state to the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus," which only Turkey recognizes. A separatist insurgency begun in 1984 by the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) - now known as the People's Congress of Kurdistan or Kongra-Gel (KGK) - has dominated the Turkish military's attention and claimed more than 30,000 lives, but after the capture of the group's leader in 1999, the insurgents largely withdrew from Turkey, mainly to northern Iraq. In 2004, KGK announced an end to its ceasefire and attacks attributed to the KGK increased. Turkey joined the UN in 1945 and in 1952 it became a member of NATO. In 1964, Turkey became an associate member of the European Community; over the past decade, it has undertaken many reforms to strengthen its democracy and economy, enabling it to begin accession membership talks with the European Union.
GeographyTop
Location:southeastern Europe and southwestern Asia (that portion of Turkey west of the Bosporus is geographically part of Europe), bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Georgia, and bordering the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, between Greece and Syria
Geographic coordinates:39 00 N, 35 00 E
Map references:Middle East
Area:total: 780,580 sq km
land: 770,760 sq km
water: 9,820 sq km

Area - comparative:slightly larger than Texas
Land boundaries:total: 2,648 km
border countries: Armenia 268 km, Azerbaijan 9 km, Bulgaria 240 km, Georgia 252 km, Greece 206 km, Iran 499 km, Iraq 352 km, Syria 822 km

Coastline:7,200 km
Maritime claims:territorial sea: 6 nm in the Aegean Sea; 12 nm in Black Sea and in Mediterranean Sea
exclusive economic zone: in Black Sea only: to the maritime boundary agreed upon with the former USSR

Climate:temperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters; harsher in interior
Terrain:high central plateau (Anatolia); narrow coastal plain; several mountain ranges
Elevation extremes:lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Mount Ararat 5,166 m

Natural resources:coal, iron ore, copper, chromium, antimony, mercury, gold, barite, borate, celestite (strontium), emery, feldspar, limestone, magnesite, marble, perlite, pumice, pyrites (sulfur), clay, arable land, hydropower
Land use:arable land: 30.93%
permanent crops: 3.31%
other: 65.76% (2001)

Irrigated land:42,000 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:very severe earthquakes, especially in northern Turkey, along an arc extending from the Sea of Marmara to Lake Van
Environment - current issues:water pollution from dumping of chemicals and detergents; air pollution, particularly in urban areas; deforestation; concern for oil spills from increasing Bosporus ship traffic
Environment - international agreements:party to: Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification

Geography - note:strategic location controlling the Turkish Straits (Bosporus, Sea of Marmara, Dardanelles) that link Black and Aegean Seas; Mount Ararat, the legendary landing place of Noah's Ark, is in the far eastern portion of the country
PeopleTop
Population:69,660,559 (July 2005 est.)
Age structure:0-14 years: 26% (male 9,232,439/female 8,897,135)
15-64 years: 67.3% (male 23,806,367/female 23,053,536)
65 years and over: 6.7% (male 2,140,242/female 2,530,840) (2005 est.)

Median age:total: 27.7 years
male: 27.52 years
female: 27.89 years (2005 est.)

Population growth rate:1.09% (2005 est.)
Birth rate:16.83 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Death rate:5.96 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Net migration rate:0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2005 est.)

Infant mortality rate:total: 41.04 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 44.68 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 37.22 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:total population: 72.36 years
male: 69.94 years
female: 74.91 years (2005 est.)

Total fertility rate:1.94 children born/woman (2005 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:less than 0.1% - note - no country specific models provided (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths:NA
Nationality:noun: Turk(s)
adjective: Turkish

Ethnic groups:Turkish 80%, Kurdish 20% (estimated)
Religions:Muslim 99.8% (mostly Sunni), other 0.2% (mostly Christians and Jews)
Languages:Turkish (official), Kurdish, Arabic, Armenian, Greek
Literacy:definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 86.5%
male: 94.3%
female: 78.7% (2003 est.)

GovernmentTop
Country name:conventional long form: Republic of Turkey
conventional short form: Turkey
local long form: Turkiye Cumhuriyeti
local short form: Turkiye

Government type:republican parliamentary democracy
Capital:Ankara
Administrative divisions:81 provinces (iller, singular - il); Adana, Adiyaman, Afyonkarahisar, Agri, Aksaray, Amasya, Ankara, Antalya, Ardahan, Artvin, Aydin, Balikesir, Bartin, Batman, Bayburt, Bilecik, Bingol, Bitlis, Bolu, Burdur, Bursa, Canakkale, Cankiri, Corum, Denizli, Diyarbakir, Duzce, Edirne, Elazig, Erzincan, Erzurum, Eskisehir, Gaziantep, Giresun, Gumushane, Hakkari, Hatay, Igdir, Isparta, Istanbul, Izmir, Kahramanmaras, Karabuk, Karaman, Kars, Kastamonu, Kayseri, Kilis, Kirikkale, Kirklareli, Kirsehir, Kocaeli, Konya, Kutahya, Malatya, Manisa, Mardin, Mersin, Mugla, Mus, Nevsehir, Nigde, Ordu, Osmaniye, Rize, Sakarya, Samsun, Sanliurfa, Siirt, Sinop, Sirnak, Sivas, Tekirdag, Tokat, Trabzon, Tunceli, Usak, Van, Yalova, Yozgat, Zonguldak
Independence:29 October 1923 (successor state to the Ottoman Empire)
National holiday:Republic Day, 29 October (1923)
Constitution:7 November 1982
Legal system:civil law system derived from various European continental legal systems; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations; note - member of the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR), although Turkey claims limited derogations on the ratified European Convention on Human Rights
Suffrage:18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:chief of state: President Ahmet Necdet SEZER (since 16 May 2000)
head of government: Prime Minister Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN (14 March 2003)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the nomination of the prime minister
elections: president elected by the National Assembly for a seven-year term; election last held 5 May 2000 (next to be held May 2007); prime minister appointed by the president from among members of parliament
election results: Ahmed Necdet SEZER elected president on the third ballot; percent of National Assembly vote - 60%
note: president must have a two-thirds majority of the National Assembly on the first two ballots and a simple majority on the third ballot

Legislative branch:unicameral Grand National Assembly of Turkey or Turkiye Buyuk Millet Meclisi (550 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 3 November 2002 (next to be held NA 2007); note - a special rerun of the General Election in the province of Siirt on 9 March 2003 resulted in the election of Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN to a seat in parliament, a prerequisite for becoming prime minister, on 14 March 2003
election results: percent of vote by party - AKP 34.3%, CHP 19.4%, DYP 9.6%, MHP 8.3%, ANAP 5.1%, DSP 1.1%, and others; seats by party - AKP 363, CHP 178, independents 9; note - parties surpassing the 10% threshold are entitled to parliamentary seats; seats by party as of 1 December 2004 - AKP 368, CHP 171, DYP 4, LDP 1, independents 5, vacant 1

Judicial branch:Constitutional Court; High Court of Appeals (Yargitay); Council of State (Danistay); Court of Accounts (Sayistay); Military High Court of Appeals; Military High Administrative Court
Political parties and leaders:Democratic Left Party or DSP [Mehmet Zeki SEZER]; Democratic People's Party or DEHAP [Tuncer BAKIRHAN]; Justice and Development Party or AKP [Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Emin SIRIN]; Motherland Party or ANAP [Ali Talip OZDEMIR]; Nationalist Action Party or MHP [Devlet BAHCELI]; Republican People's Party or CHP (includes the New Turkey Party) [Deniz BAYKAL]; Felicity Party (sometimes translated as Contentment Party) or SP [Necmettin ERBEKAN]; Social Democratic People's Party or SHP [Murat KARAYALCIN]; True Path Party (sometimes translated as Correct Way Party) or DYP [Mehmet AGAR]
note: the parties listed above are some of the more significant of the 49 parties that Turkey had on 1 December 2004

Political pressure groups and leaders:Confederation of Public Sector Unions or KESK [Sami EVREN]; Confederation of Revolutionary Workers Unions or DISK [Suleyman CELEBI]; Independent Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association or MUSIAD [Omer BOLAT]; Moral Rights Workers Union or Hak-Is [Salim USLU]; Turkish Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association or TUSIAD [Omer SABANCI]; Turkish Confederation of Employers' Unions or TISK [Refik BAYDUR]; Turkish Confederation of Labor or Turk-Is [Salih KILIC]; Turkish Confederation of Tradesmen and Craftsmen or TESK [Dervis GUNDAY]; Turkish Union of Chambers of Commerce and Commodity Exchanges or TOBB [M. Rifat HISARCIKLIOGLU]
International organization participation:AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CE, CERN (observer), EAPC, EBRD, ECO, EU (applicant), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIK, UNOMIG, UNRWA, UPU, WCO, WEU (associate), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO, ZC
Flag description:red with a vertical white crescent (the closed portion is toward the hoist side) and white five-pointed star centered just outside the crescent opening
EconomyTop
Economy - overview:Turkey's dynamic economy is a complex mix of modern industry and commerce along with a traditional agriculture sector that in 2004 still accounted for more than 35% of employment. It has a strong and rapidly growing private sector, yet the state still plays a major role in basic industry, banking, transport, and communication. The largest industrial sector is textiles and clothing, which accounts for one-third of industrial employment; it faces stiff competition in international markets with the end of the global quota system. However, other sectors, notably the automotive and electronics industries, are rising in importance within Turkey's export mix. In recent years the economic situation has been marked by erratic economic growth and serious imbalances. Real GNP growth has exceeded 6% in many years, but this strong expansion has been interrupted by sharp declines in output in 1994, 1999, and 2001. Inflation, in recent years in the high double-digit range, fell to 9.3% by 2004 - a 30-year low. Despite these strong economic gains in 2002-04, which were largely due to renewed investor interest in emerging markets, IMF backing, and tighter fiscal policy, the economy is still plagued with high debt and deficits. The public sector fiscal deficit exceeds 6% of GDP - due in large part to the huge burden of interest payments, which accounted for more than 40% of central government spending in 2004, and to populist spending. Foreign direct investment (FDI) in Turkey remains low - averaging less than $1 billion annually, but further economic and judicial reforms and prospective EU membership are expected to boost FDI. A major political and economic issue over the next decade is whether or not Turkey will become a member of the EU.
GDP:purchasing power parity - $508.7 billion (2004 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:8.2% (2004 est.)
GDP - per capita:purchasing power parity - $7,400 (2004 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:agriculture: 11.7%
industry: 29.8%
services: 58.5% (2003 est.)

Labor force:25.3 million
note: about 1.2 million Turks work abroad (2003 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:agriculture 35.9%, industry 22.8%, services 41.2% (3rd quarter, 2004)
Unemployment rate:9.3% (plus underemployment of 4.0%) (2004 est.)
Population below poverty line:20% (2002)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: 2.3%
highest 10%: 30.7% (2000)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:42 (2003)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):9.3% (2004 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):17.3% of GDP (2004 est.)
Budget:revenues: $78.53 billion
expenditures: $110.9 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

Public debt:74.3% of GDP (2004 est.)
Agriculture - products:tobacco, cotton, grain, olives, sugar beets, pulse, citrus; livestock
Industries:textiles, food processing, autos, mining (coal, chromite, copper, boron), steel, petroleum, construction, lumber, paper
Industrial production growth rate:16.5% (2004 est.)
Electricity - production:139.7 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - production by source:fossil fuel: 79.3%
hydro: 20.4%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0.3% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:117.9 billion kWh (2002)
Electricity - exports:433 million kWh (2002)
Electricity - imports:3.6 billion kWh (2002)
Oil - production:48,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:619,500 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:46,110 bbl/day (2001)
Oil - imports:616,500 bbl/day (2001)
Oil - proved reserves:288.4 million bbl (1 January 2002)
Natural gas - production:312 million cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:15.94 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:15.75 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:8.685 billion cu m (1 January 2002)
Current account balance:$-15.3 billion (2004 est.)
Exports:$69.46 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Exports - commodities:apparel, foodstuffs, textiles, metal manufactures, transport equipment
Exports - partners:Germany 13.9%, UK 8.8%, US 7.7%, Italy 7.4%, France 5.8%, Spain 4.2% (2004)
Imports:$94.5 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Imports - commodities:machinery, chemicals, semi-finished goods, fuels, transport equipment
Imports - partners:Germany 12.9%, Russia 9.3%, Italy 7.1%, France 6.4%, US 4.8%, China 4.6%, UK 4.4% (2004)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:$37.1 billion (2004 est.)
Debt - external:$16.9 billion (2004 est.)
Currency (code):Turkish lira (TRL), New Turkish lira (YTL) after 1 January 2005
Currency code:TRL, YTL
Exchange rates:Turkish liras per US dollar - 1,425,500 (2004), 1,500,900 (2003), 1,507,200 (2002), 1,225,600 (2001), 625,200 (2000)
Note: on 1 January 2005 the old Turkish Lira (TRL)was converted to New Turkish Lira (YTL) at a rate of 1,000,000 old to 1 New Turkish Lira

Fiscal year:calendar year
CommunicationsTop
Telephones - main lines in use:18,916,700 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular:27,887,500 (2003)
Telephone system:general assessment: undergoing rapid modernization and expansion, especially with cellular telephones
domestic: additional digital exchanges are permitting a rapid increase in subscribers; the construction of a network of technologically advanced intercity trunk lines, using both fiber-optic cable and digital microwave radio relay is facilitating communication between urban centers; remote areas are reached by a domestic satellite system; the number of subscribers to mobile cellular telephone service is growing rapidly
international: country code - 90; international service is provided by three submarine fiber-optic cables in the Mediterranean and Black Seas, linking Turkey with Italy, Greece, Israel, Bulgaria, Romania, and Russia; also by 12 Intelsat earth stations, and by 328 mobile satellite terminals in the Inmarsat and Eutelsat systems (2002)

Radio broadcast stations:AM 16, FM 107, shortwave 6 (2001)
Radios:11.3 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations:635 (plus 2,934 repeaters) (1995)
Televisions:20.9 million (1997)
Internet country code:.tr
Internet hosts:355,215 (2004)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):50 (2001)
Internet users:5.5 million (2003)
TransportationTop
Railways:total: 8,697 km
standard gauge: 8,697 km 1.435-m gauge (2,122 km electrified) (2004)

Highways:total: 354,421 km
paved: 147,404 km (including 1,851 km of expressways)
unpaved: 207,017 km (2002)

Waterways:1,200 km (2003)
Pipelines:gas 3,177 km; oil 3,562 km (2004)
Ports and harbors:Gemlik, Hopa, Iskenderun, Istanbul, Izmir, Kocaeli (Izmit), Icel (Mersin), Samsun, Trabzon
Merchant marine:total: 526 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 4,666,895 GRT/7,311,504 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 108, cargo 228, chemical tanker 45, combination ore/oil 1, container 25, liquefied gas 6, passenger 5, passenger/cargo 50, petroleum tanker 33, refrigerated cargo 2, roll on/roll off 22, specialized tanker 1
foreign-owned: 8 (Cyprus 3, Denmark 2, Greece 1, Italy 1, Switzerland 1)
registered in other countries: 231 (2005)

Airports:119 (2004 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:total: 87
over 3,047 m: 16
2,438 to 3,047 m: 30
1,524 to 2,437 m: 20
914 to 1,523 m: 17
under 914 m: 4 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:total: 32
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 8
under 914 m: 20 (2004 est.)

Heliports:14 (2004 est.)
MilitaryTop
Military branches:Turkish Armed Forces (TSK): Land Forces, Naval Forces (includes Naval Air and Naval Infantry), Air Force
Military manpower - military age and obligation:20 years of age (2004)
Military manpower - availability:males age 20-49: 16,756,323 (2005 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:males age 20-49: 13,905,901 (2005 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:males: 679,734 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:$12.155 billion (2003)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:5.3% (2003)
Military note:in the early 1990s, the Turkish Land Force was a large but badly equipped infantry force; there were 14 infantry divisions, but only one was mechanized, and out of 16 infantry brigades, only six were mechanized; the overhaul that has taken place since has produced highly moblie forces with greatly enhanced firepower in accordance with NATO's new strategic concept (2005)
Transnational IssuesTop
Disputes - international:complex maritime, air, and territorial disputes with Greece in the Aegean Sea; status of north Cyprus question remains; Syria and Iraq protest Turkish hydrological projects to control upper Euphrates waters; Turkey has expressed concern over the status of Kurds in Iraq; border with Armenia remains closed over Nagorno-Karabakh
Refugees and internally displaced persons::IDPs: 350,000-1,000,000 (fighting from 1984-99 between Kurdish PKK and Turkish military; most IDPs in southeastern provinces) (2004)
Illicit drugs:key transit route for Southwest Asian heroin to Western Europe and - to a far lesser extent the US - via air, land, and sea routes; major Turkish, Iranian, and other international trafficking organizations operate out of Istanbul; laboratories to convert imported morphine base into heroin are in remote regions of Turkey as well as near Istanbul; government maintains strict controls over areas of legal opium poppy cultivation and output of poppy straw concentrate



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