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By Exit Pages > Visit Detail > Country Facts for Czech Republic
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Map of Czech Republic
IntroductionTop
Background:Following the First World War, the closely related Czechs and Slovaks of the former Austro-Hungarian Empire merged to form Czechoslovakia. During the interwar years, the new country's leaders were frequently preoccupied with meeting the demands of other ethnic minorities within the republic, most notably the Sudeten Germans and the Ruthenians (Ukrainians). After World War II, a truncated Czechoslovakia fell within the Soviet sphere of influence. In 1968, an invasion by Warsaw Pact troops ended the efforts of the country's leaders to liberalize Communist party rule and create "socialism with a human face." Anti-Soviet demonstrations the following year ushered in a period of harsh repression. With the collapse of Soviet authority in 1989, Czechoslovakia regained its freedom through a peaceful "Velvet Revolution." On 1 January 1993, the country underwent a "velvet divorce" into its two national components, the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The Czech Republic joined NATO in 1999 and the European Union in 2004.
GeographyTop
Location:Central Europe, southeast of Germany
Geographic coordinates:49 45 N, 15 30 E
Map references:Europe
Area:total: 78,866 sq km
land: 77,276 sq km
water: 1,590 sq km

Area - comparative:slightly smaller than South Carolina
Land boundaries:total: 1,881 km
border countries: Austria 362 km, Germany 646 km, Poland 658 km, Slovakia 215 km

Coastline:0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:none (landlocked)
Climate:temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters
Terrain:Bohemia in the west consists of rolling plains, hills, and plateaus surrounded by low mountains; Moravia in the east consists of very hilly country
Elevation extremes:lowest point: Elbe River 115 m
highest point: Snezka 1,602 m

Natural resources:hard coal, soft coal, kaolin, clay, graphite, timber
Land use:arable land: 39.8%
permanent crops: 3.05%
other: 57.15% (2001)

Irrigated land:240 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:flooding
Environment - current issues:air and water pollution in areas of northwest Bohemia and in northern Moravia around Ostrava present health risks; acid rain damaging forests; efforts to bring industry up to EU code should improve domestic pollution
Environment - international agreements:party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:landlocked; strategically located astride some of oldest and most significant land routes in Europe; Moravian Gate is a traditional military corridor between the North European Plain and the Danube in central Europe
PeopleTop
Population:10,241,138 (July 2005 est.)
Age structure:0-14 years: 14.7% (male 773,028/female 731,833)
15-64 years: 71.1% (male 3,651,018/female 3,627,006)
65 years and over: 14.2% (male 565,374/female 892,879) (2005 est.)

Median age:total: 38.97 years
male: 37.2 years
female: 40.82 years (2005 est.)

Population growth rate:-0.05% (2005 est.)
Birth rate:9.07 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Death rate:10.54 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Net migration rate:0.97 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Sex ratio:at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.63 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2005 est.)

Infant mortality rate:total: 3.93 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 4.28 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.55 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:total population: 76.02 years
male: 72.74 years
female: 79.49 years (2005 est.)

Total fertility rate:1.2 children born/woman (2005 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:less than 0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:2,500 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:less than 10 (2001 est.)
Nationality:noun: Czech(s)
adjective: Czech

Ethnic groups:Czech 90.4%, Moravian 3.7%, Slovak 1.9%, other 4% (2001 census)
Religions:Roman Catholic 26.8%, Protestant 2.1%, other 3.3%, unspecified 8.8%, unaffiliated 59% (2001 census)
Languages:Czech
Literacy:definition: NA
total population: 99.9% (1999 est.)
male: NA%
female: NA%

GovernmentTop
Country name:conventional long form: Czech Republic
conventional short form: Czech Republic
local long form: Ceska Republika
local short form: Ceska Republika

Government type:parliamentary democracy
Capital:Prague
Administrative divisions:13 regions (kraje, singular - kraj) and 1 capital city* (hlavni mesto); Jihocesky Kraj, Jihomoravsky Kraj, Karlovarsky Kraj, Kralovehradecky Kraj, Liberecky Kraj, Moravskoslezsky Kraj, Olomoucky Kraj, Pardubicky Kraj, Plzensky Kraj, Praha (Prague)*, Stredocesky Kraj, Ustecky Kraj, Vysocina, Zlinsky Kraj
Independence:1 January 1993 (Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia)
National holiday:Czech Founding Day, 28 October (1918)
Constitution:ratified 16 December 1992; effective 1 January 1993
Legal system:civil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; legal code modified to bring it in line with Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) obligations and to expunge Marxist-Leninist legal theory
Suffrage:18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:chief of state: President Vaclav KLAUS (since 7 March 2003)
note: the Czech Republic's first president Vaclav HAVEL stepped down from office on 2 February 2003 having served exactly 10 years; parliament finally elected a successor on 28 February 2003 after two inconclusive elections in January 2003
head of government: Prime Minister Jiri PAROUBEK (since 25 April 2005), Deputy Prime Ministers Zdenek SKROMACH (since 4 August 2004), Martin JAHN (since 4 August 2004), Pavel NEMEC (since 4 August 2004), Milan SIMONOVSKY (since 4 August 2004)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
elections: president elected by Parliament for a five-year term; last successful election held 28 February 2003 (after earlier elections held 15 and 24 January 2003 were inconclusive; next election to be held January 2008); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Vaclav KLAUS elected president on 28 February 2003; Vaclav KLAUS 142 votes, Jan SOKOL 124 votes (third round; combined votes of both chambers of parliament)

Legislative branch:bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the Senate or Senat (81 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms; one-third elected every two years) and the Chamber of Deputies or Poslanecka Snemovna (200 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held in two rounds 5-6 November and 12-13 November 2004 (next to be held November 2006); Chamber of Deputies - last held 14-15 June 2002 (next to be held by June 2006)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - ODS 37, KDU-CSL 14, Open Democracy 13, CSSD 7, Caucus Open Democracy 7, independents 3; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - CSSD 30.2%, ODS 24.5%, KSCM 18.5%, KDU-CSL & US-DEU coalition 14.3%, other minor 12.5%; seats by party - CSSD 70, ODS 57, KSCM 41, KDU-CSL 21, US-DEU 10, independent 1

Judicial branch:Supreme Court; Constitutional Court; chairman and deputy chairmen are appointed by the president for a 10-year term
Political parties and leaders:Caucus SNK [Josef ZOSER]; Christian and Democratic Union-Czechoslovak People's Party or KDU-CSL [Miroslav KALOUSEK, chairman]; Civic Democratic Alliance or ODA [Jirina NOVAKOVA, chairman]; Civic Democratic Party or ODS [Mirek TOPOLANEK, chairman]; Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia or KSCM [Miroslav GREBENICEK, chairman]; Communist Party of Czechoslovakia or KSC [Miroslav STEPAN, chairman]; Czech National Social Party of CSNS [Jaroslav ROVNY, chairman]; Czech Social Democratic Party or CSSD [Stanislav GROSS, acting chairman]; European Democrats [Jan KASL]; Freedom Union-Democratic Union or US-DEU [Hana Marvanova, chairwoman]; Open Democracy [Sona PAUKRTOVA, chairwoman]
Political pressure groups and leaders:Bohemian and Moravian Trade Union Confederation [Milan STECH]
International organization participation:ACCT (observer), Australia Group, BIS, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EU (new member), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MIGA, MONUC, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMEE, UNMIK, UNMIL, UNOMIG, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU (member affiliate), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO, ZC
Flag description:two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red with a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side (identical to the flag of the former Czechoslovakia)
EconomyTop
Economy - overview:The Czech Republic is one of the most stable and prosperous of the post-Communist states of Central and Eastern Europe. Growth in 2000-04 was supported by exports to the EU, primarily to Germany, and a strong recovery of foreign and domestic investment. Domestic demand is playing an ever more important role in underpinning growth as interest rates drop and the availability of credit cards and mortgages increases. Current account deficits of around 5% of GDP are beginning to decline as demand for Czech products in the European Union increases. Inflation is under control. Recent accession to the EU gives further impetus and direction to structural reform. In early 2004 the government passed increases in the Value Added Tax (VAT) and tightened eligibility for social benefits with the intention to bring the public finance gap down to 4% of GDP by 2006, but more difficult pension and healthcare reforms will have to wait until after the next elections. Privatization of the state-owned telecommunications firm Cesky Telecom is scheduled to take place in 2005. Intensified restructuring among large enterprises, improvements in the financial sector, and effective use of available EU funds should strengthen output growth.
GDP:purchasing power parity - $172.2 billion (2004 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:3.7% (2004 est.)
GDP - per capita:purchasing power parity - $16,800 (2004 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:agriculture: 3.4%
industry: 39.3%
services: 57.3% (2004 est.)

Labor force:5.25 million (2004 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:agriculture 4%, industry 38%, services 58% (2002 est.)
Unemployment rate:10.6% (2004 est.)
Population below poverty line:NA
Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: 4.3%
highest 10%: 22.4% (1996)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:25.4 (1996)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):3.2% (2004 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):29% of GDP (2004 est.)
Budget:revenues: $39.31 billion
expenditures: $45.8 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

Public debt:33.5% of GDP (2004 est.)
Agriculture - products:wheat, potatoes, sugar beets, hops, fruit; pigs, poultry
Industries:metallurgy, machinery and equipment, motor vehicles, glass, armaments
Industrial production growth rate:4.7% (2004 est.)
Electricity - production:71.75 billion kWh (2002)
Electricity - production by source:fossil fuel: 76.1%
hydro: 2.9%
nuclear: 20%
other: 1% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:55.33 billion kWh (2002)
Electricity - exports:20.9 billion kWh (2002)
Electricity - imports:9.5 billion kWh (2002)
Oil - production:7,419 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:175,700 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:26,670 bbl/day (2001)
Oil - imports:192,300 bbl/day (2001)
Oil - proved reserves:17.25 million bbl (1 January 2002)
Natural gas - production:160 million cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:9.892 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:1 million cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:9.521 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:3.057 billion cu m (1 January 2002)
Current account balance:$-5.73 billion (2004 est.)
Exports:$66.51 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Exports - commodities:machinery and transport equipment 52%, chemicals 5%, raw materials and fuel 9% (2003)
Exports - partners:Germany 36.2%, Slovakia 9.1%, Austria 6.1%, Poland 5.5% (2004)
Imports:$68.19 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Imports - commodities:machinery and transport equipment 46%, raw materials and fuels 15%, chemicals 10% (2003)
Imports - partners:Germany 36.2%, Austria 5.6%, Italy 5.4%, France 4.8%, Netherlands 4.7%, Slovakia 4.7% (2004)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:$32.78 billion (2004 est.)
Debt - external:$36.28 billion (2004 est.)
Currency (code):Czech koruna (CZK)
Currency code:CZK
Exchange rates:koruny per US dollar - 25.7 (2004), 28.209 (2003), 32.739 (2002), 38.035 (2001), 38.598 (2000)
Fiscal year:calendar year
CommunicationsTop
Telephones - main lines in use:3.626 million (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular:9,708,700 (2003)
Telephone system:general assessment: privatization and modernization of the Czech telecommunication system got a late start but is advancing steadily; growth in the use of mobile cellular telephones is particularly vigorous
domestic: 86% of exchanges now digital; existing copper subscriber systems now being enhanced with Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) equipment to accommodate Internet and other digital signals; trunk systems include fiber-optic cable and microwave radio relay
international: country code - 420; satellite earth stations - 2 Intersputnik (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions), 1 Intelsat, 1 Eutelsat, 1 Inmarsat, 1 Globalstar

Radio broadcast stations:AM 31, FM 304, shortwave 17 (2000)
Radios:3,159,134 (December 2000)
Television broadcast stations:150 (plus 1,434 repeaters) (2000)
Televisions:3,405,834 (December 2000)
Internet country code:.cz
Internet hosts:295,677 (2004)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):more than 300 (2000)
Internet users:2.7 million (2003)
TransportationTop
Railways:total: 9,543 km
standard gauge: 9,421 km 1.435-m gauge (2,893 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 122 km 0.760-m gauge (23 km electrified) (2004)

Highways:total: 127,204 km
paved: 127,204 km (including 518 km of expressways)
unpaved: 0 km (2002)

Waterways:664 km (on Elbe, Vltava, and Oder rivers) (2004)
Pipelines:gas 7,020 km; oil 547 km; refined products 94 km (2004)
Ports and harbors:Decin, Prague, Usti nad Labem
Merchant marine:registered in other countries: 3
Airports:120 (2004 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:total: 44
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 17 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:total: 76
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 27
under 914 m: 48 (2004 est.)

Heliports:2 (2004 est.)
MilitaryTop
Military branches:Army of the Czech Republic (ACR): Joint Forces Command, Support and Training Forces Command (2005)
Military manpower - military age and obligation:18-50 years of age for voluntary military service; military service transformed into a fully professional, all-volunteer force no longer dependent on conscription beginning in January 2004 (2005)
Military manpower - availability:males age 18-49: 2,414,728 (2005 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:males age 18-49: 1,996,631 (2005 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:males: 66,583 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:$2.17 billion (2004)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:2.02% (2004)
Transnational IssuesTop
Disputes - international:in February 2005, the ICJ refused to rule on the restitution of Liechtenstein's land and property assets in the Czech Republic confiscated in 1945 as German property; individual Sudeten Germans seek restitution for property confiscated in connection with their expulsion after World War II
Illicit drugs:transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and minor transit point for Latin American cocaine to Western Europe; producer of synthetic drugs for local and regional markets; susceptible to money laundering related to drug trafficking, organized crime



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