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By Referrals > Visit Detail > Country Facts for Sweden
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Map of Sweden
IntroductionTop
Background:A military power during the 17th century, Sweden has not participated in any war in almost two centuries. An armed neutrality was preserved in both World Wars. Sweden's long-successful economic formula of a capitalist system interlarded with substantial welfare elements was challenged in the 1990s by high unemployment and in 2000-02 by the global economic downturn, but fiscal discipline over the past several years has allowed the country to weather economic vagaries. Indecision over the country's role in the political and economic integration of Europe delayed Sweden's entry into the EU until 1995, and waived the introduction of the euro in 1999.
GeographyTop
Location:Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, Kattegat, and Skagerrak, between Finland and Norway
Geographic coordinates:62 00 N, 15 00 E
Map references:Europe
Area:total: 449,964 sq km
land: 410,934 sq km
water: 39,030 sq km

Area - comparative:slightly larger than California
Land boundaries:total: 2,233 km
border countries: Finland 614 km, Norway 1,619 km

Coastline:3,218 km
Maritime claims:territorial sea: 12 nm (adjustments made to return a portion of straits to high seas)
exclusive economic zone: agreed boundaries or midlines
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

Climate:temperate in south with cold, cloudy winters and cool, partly cloudy summers; subarctic in north
Terrain:mostly flat or gently rolling lowlands; mountains in west
Elevation extremes:lowest point: reclaimed bay of Lake Hammarsjon, near Kristianstad -2.41 m
highest point: Kebnekaise 2,111 m

Natural resources:iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, tungsten, uranium, arsenic, feldspar, timber, hydropower
Land use:arable land: 6.54%
permanent crops: 0.01%
other: 93.45% (2001)

Irrigated land:1,150 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:ice floes in the surrounding waters, especially in the Gulf of Bothnia, can interfere with maritime traffic
Environment - current issues:acid rain damage to soils and lakes; pollution of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea
Environment - international agreements:party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:strategic location along Danish Straits linking Baltic and North Seas
PeopleTop
Population:9,001,774 (July 2005 est.)
Age structure:0-14 years: 17.1% (male 791,215/female 747,621)
15-64 years: 65.5% (male 2,990,436/female 2,904,873)
65 years and over: 17.4% (male 677,161/female 890,468) (2005 est.)

Median age:total: 40.6 years
male: 39.49 years
female: 41.75 years (2005 est.)

Population growth rate:0.17% (2005 est.)
Birth rate:10.36 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Death rate:10.36 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Net migration rate:1.67 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Sex ratio:at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2005 est.)

Infant mortality rate:total: 2.77 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 2.93 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 2.59 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:total population: 80.4 years
male: 78.19 years
female: 82.74 years (2005 est.)

Total fertility rate:1.66 children born/woman (2005 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:3,600 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:less than 100 (2003 est.)
Nationality:noun: Swede(s)
adjective: Swedish

Ethnic groups:indigenous population: Swedes and Finnish and Sami minorities; foreign-born or first-generation immigrants: Finns, Yugoslavs, Danes, Norwegians, Greeks, Turks
Religions:Lutheran 87%, Roman Catholic, Orthodox, Baptist, Muslim, Jewish, Buddhist
Languages:Swedish, small Sami- and Finnish-speaking minorities
Literacy:definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99% (1979 est.)
male: NA%
female: NA%

GovernmentTop
Country name:conventional long form: Kingdom of Sweden
conventional short form: Sweden
local long form: Konungariket Sverige
local short form: Sverige

Government type:constitutional monarchy
Capital:Stockholm
Administrative divisions:21 counties (lan, singular and plural); Blekinge, Dalarnas, Gavleborgs, Gotlands, Hallands, Jamtlands, Jonkopings, Kalmar, Kronobergs, Norrbottens, Orebro, Ostergotlands, Skane, Sodermanlands, Stockholms, Uppsala, Varmlands, Vasterbottens, Vasternorrlands, Vastmanlands, Vastra Gotalands
Independence:6 June 1523 (Gustav VASA elected king)
National holiday:Flag Day, 6 June
Constitution:1 January 1975
Legal system:civil law system influenced by customary law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage:18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:chief of state: King CARL XVI GUSTAF (since 19 September 1973); Heir Apparent Princess VICTORIA Ingrid Alice Desiree, daughter of the monarch (born 14 July 1977)
head of government: Prime Minister Goran PERSSON (since 21 March 1996)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister
elections: the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the prime minister is elected by the parliament; election last held 15 September 2002 (next to be held NA September 2006)
election results: Goran PERSSON reelected prime minister with 131 out of 349 votes

Legislative branch:unicameral Parliament or Riksdag (349 seats; members are elected by popular vote on a proportional representation basis to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 15 September 2002 (next to be held September 2006)
election results: percent of vote by party - Social Democrats 39.8%, Moderates 15.2%, Liberal Party 13.3%, Christian Democrats 9.1%, Left Party 8.3%, Center Party 6.1%, Greens 4.6%; seats by party - Social Democrats 144, Moderates 55, Liberal Party 48, Christian Democrats 33, Left Party 30, Center Party 22, Greens 17

Judicial branch:Supreme Court or Hogsta Domstolen (judges are appointed by the prime minister and the cabinet)
Political parties and leaders:Center Party [Maud OLOFSSON]; Christian Democratic Party [Goran HAGGLUND]; Green Party [no formal leader but party spokespersons are Maria WETTERSTRAND and Peter ERIKSSON]; Left Party or V (formerly Communist) [Lars OHLY]; Liberal People's Party [Lars LEIJONBORG]; Moderate Party (conservative) [Fredrik REINFELDT]; Social Democratic Party [Goran PERSSON]
Political pressure groups and leaders:NA
International organization participation:AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 6, G- 9, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MIGA, MONUC, NAM (guest), NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMEE, UNMIK, UNMIL, UNMISET, UNMOGIP, UNOMIG, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WEU (observer), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Flag description:blue with a golden yellow cross extending to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)
EconomyTop
Economy - overview:Aided by peace and neutrality for the whole 20th century, Sweden has achieved an enviable standard of living under a mixed system of high-tech capitalism and extensive welfare benefits. It has a modern distribution system, excellent internal and external communications, and a skilled labor force. Timber, hydropower, and iron ore constitute the resource base of an economy heavily oriented toward foreign trade. Privately owned firms account for about 90% of industrial output, of which the engineering sector accounts for 50% of output and exports. Agriculture accounts for only 2% of GDP and 2% of the jobs. The government's commitment to fiscal discipline resulted in a substantial budgetary surplus in 2001, which was cut by more than half in 2002, due to the global economic slowdown, declining revenue, and increased spending. The Swedish central bank (the Riksbank) focuses on price stability with its inflation target of 2%. Growth remained sluggish in 2003, but picked up in 2004. Presumably because of generous sicktime benefits, Swedish workers report in sick more often than other Europeans. On 14 September 2003, Swedish voters turned down entry into the euro system, concerned about the impact on democracy and sovereignty.
GDP:purchasing power parity - $255.4 billion (2004 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:3.6% (2004 est.)
GDP - per capita:purchasing power parity - $28,400 (2004 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:agriculture: 2%
industry: 29%
services: 69% (2001)

Labor force:4.46 million (2004 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:agriculture 2%, industry 24%, services 74% (2000 est.)
Unemployment rate:5.6% (2004 est.)
Population below poverty line:NA
Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: 3.7%
highest 10%: 20.1% (1992)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:25 (1992)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):0.7% (2004 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):15.8% of GDP (2004 est.)
Budget:revenues: $201.3 billion
expenditures: $199.6 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

Public debt:51.6% of GDP (2004 est.)
Agriculture - products:barley, wheat, sugar beets; meat, milk
Industries:iron and steel, precision equipment (bearings, radio and telephone parts, armaments), wood pulp and paper products, processed foods, motor vehicles
Industrial production growth rate:5.5% (2004 est.)
Electricity - production:142.8 billion kWh (2002)
Electricity - production by source:fossil fuel: 4%
hydro: 50.8%
nuclear: 43%
other: 2.3% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:138.1 billion kWh (2002)
Electricity - exports:14.8 billion kWh (2002)
Electricity - imports:20.1 billion kWh (2002)
Oil - production:0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:328,600 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:203,700 bbl/day (2001)
Oil - imports:553,100 bbl/day (2001)
Natural gas - production:0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:949 million cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:968 million cu m (2001 est.)
Current account balance:$24.08 billion (2004 est.)
Exports:$121.7 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Exports - commodities:machinery 35%, motor vehicles, paper products, pulp and wood, iron and steel products, chemicals
Exports - partners:US 10.7%, Germany 10.3%, UK 7.2%, Denmark 6.6%, Norway 6.2%, Finland 5.9%, Belgium 5.1%, Netherlands 4.8%, France 4.7% (2004)
Imports:$97.97 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Imports - commodities:machinery, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, motor vehicles, iron and steel; foodstuffs, clothing
Imports - partners:Germany 20.2%, Denmark 8.2%, UK 7.9%, Netherlands 7.2%, Finland 7%, France 6.1%, Norway 5.9%, Belgium 4.5% (2004)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:$19.99 billion (2003)
Debt - external:$66.5 billion (1994)
Economic aid - donor:ODA, $1.7 billion (1997)
Currency (code):Swedish krona (SEK)
Currency code:SEK
Exchange rates:Swedish kronor per US dollar - 7.3489 (2004), 8.0863 (2003), 9.7371 (2002), 10.3291 (2001), 9.1622 (2000)
Fiscal year:calendar year
CommunicationsTop
Telephones - main lines in use:6,579,200 (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular:7.949 million (2002)
Telephone system:general assessment: excellent domestic and international facilities; automatic system
domestic: coaxial and multiconductor cables carry most of the voice traffic; parallel microwave radio relay systems carry some additional telephone channels
international: country code - 46; 5 submarine coaxial cables; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Sweden shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Norway)

Radio broadcast stations:AM 1, FM 265, shortwave 1 (1998)
Radios:8.25 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations:169 (plus 1,299 repeaters) (1995)
Televisions:4.6 million (1997)
Internet country code:.se
Internet hosts:945,221 (2004)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):29 (2000)
Internet users:5.125 million (2002)
TransportationTop
Railways:total: 11,481 km
standard gauge: 11,481 km 1.435-m gauge (9,400 km electrified) (2004)

Highways:total: 213,237 km
paved: 167,604 km (including 1,542 km of expressways)
unpaved: 45,633 km (2002)

Pipelines:gas 798 km (2004)
Ports and harbors:Gavle, Goteborg, Halmstad, Helsingborg, Hudiksvall, Kalmar, Karlshamn, Lulea, Malmo, Solvesborg, Stockholm, Sundsvall
Merchant marine:total: 205 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 2,702,763 GRT/1,884,570 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 6, cargo 33, chemical tanker 51, passenger 4, passenger/cargo 37, petroleum tanker 14, roll on/roll off 37, specialized tanker 1, vehicle carrier 22
foreign-owned: 42 (Belgium 2, Denmark 4, Finland 11, Germany 6, Italy 7, Japan 2, Netherlands 1, Norway 9)
registered in other countries: 155 (2005)

Airports:254 (2004 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:total: 154
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 12
1,524 to 2,437 m: 82
914 to 1,523 m: 22
under 914 m: 35 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:total: 100
914 to 1,523 m: 10
under 914 m: 90 (2004 est.)

Heliports:2 (2004 est.)
MilitaryTop
Military branches:Army, Royal Swedish Navy (RSwN), Air Force (Flygvapnet)
Military manpower - military age and obligation:19 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation - 7-17 months depending on conscript role; after completing initial service soldiers have a reserve commitment until the age of 47 (2004)
Military manpower - availability:males age 19-49: 1,838,427 (2005 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:males age 19-49: 1,493,668 (2005 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:males: 58,724 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:$5.729 billion (2004)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:1.7% (2004)
Transnational IssuesTop
Disputes - international:none



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