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By Out Links > Visit Detail > Country Facts for Macedonia
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Map of Macedonia
IntroductionTop
Background:International recognition of Macedonia's independence from Yugoslavia in 1991 was delayed by Greece's objection to the new state's use of what it considered a Hellenic name and symbols. Greece finally lifted its trade blockade in 1995 and the two countries agreed to normalize relations, although differences over Macedonia's name remain. The undetermined status of neighboring Kosovo, implementation of the Framework Agreement - which ended the 2001 ethnic Albanian armed insurgency - and a weak economy continue to be challenges for Macedonia.
GeographyTop
Location:Southeastern Europe, north of Greece
Geographic coordinates:41 50 N, 22 00 E
Map references:Europe
Area:total: 25,333 sq km
land: 24,856 sq km
water: 477 sq km

Area - comparative:slightly larger than Vermont
Land boundaries:total: 766 km
border countries: Albania 151 km, Bulgaria 148 km, Greece 246 km, Serbia and Montenegro 221 km

Coastline:0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:none (landlocked)
Climate:warm, dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall
Terrain:mountainous territory covered with deep basins and valleys; three large lakes, each divided by a frontier line; country bisected by the Vardar River
Elevation extremes:lowest point: Vardar River 50 m
highest point: Golem Korab (Maja e Korabit) 2,764 m

Natural resources:low-grade iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, manganese, nickel, tungsten, gold, silver, asbestos, gypsum, timber, arable land
Land use:arable land: 22.26%
permanent crops: 1.81%
other: 75.93% (2001)

Irrigated land:550 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:high seismic risks
Environment - current issues:air pollution from metallurgical plants
Environment - international agreements:party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:landlocked; major transportation corridor from Western and Central Europe to Aegean Sea and Southern Europe to Western Europe
PeopleTop
Population:2,045,262 (July 2005 est.)
Age structure:0-14 years: 20.5% (male 217,057/female 202,465)
15-64 years: 68.7% (male 707,489/female 697,150)
65 years and over: 10.8% (male 97,117/female 123,984) (2005 est.)

Median age:total: 32.8 years
male: 31.7 years
female: 33.9 years (2005 est.)

Population growth rate:0.26% (2005 est.)
Birth rate:12 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Death rate:8.73 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Net migration rate:-0.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Sex ratio:at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2005 est.)

Infant mortality rate:total: 10.09 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 10.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 9.97 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:total population: 73.73 years
male: 71.28 years
female: 76.37 years (2005 est.)

Total fertility rate:1.57 children born/woman (2005 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:less than 0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:less than 200 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:less than 100 (2003 est.)
Nationality:noun: Macedonian(s)
adjective: Macedonian

Ethnic groups:Macedonian 64.2%, Albanian 25.2%, Turkish 3.9%, Roma 2.7%, Serb 1.8%, other 2.2% (2002 census)
Religions:Macedonian Orthodox 32.4%, other Christian 0.2%, Muslim 16.9%, other and unspecified 50.5% (2002 census)
Languages:Macedonian 66.5%, Albanian 25.1%, Turkish 3.5%, Roma 1.9%, Serbian 1.2%, other 1.8% (2002 census)
Literacy:definition: NA
total population: NA%
male: NA%
female: NA%

GovernmentTop
Country name:conventional long form: Republic of Macedonia
conventional short form: Macedonia; note - the provisional designation used by the UN, EU, and NATO is Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM)
local long form: Republika Makedonija
local short form: Makedonija
former: People's Republic of Macedonia, Socialist Republic of Macedonia

Government type:parliamentary democracy
Capital:Skopje
Administrative divisions:85 municipalities (opstini, singular - opstina); Aerodrom (Skopje), Aracinovo, Berovo, Bitola, Bogdanci, Bogovinje, Bosilovo, Brvenica, Butel (Skopje), Cair (Skopje), Caska, Centar (Skopje), Centar Zupa, Cesinovo, Cucer-Sandevo, Debar, Debartsa, Delcevo, Demir Hisar, Demir Kapija, Dojran, Dolneni, Drugovo, Gazi Baba (Skopje), Gevgelija, Gjorce Petrov (Skopje), Gostivar, Gradsko, Ilinden, Jegunovce, Karbinci, Karpos (Skopje), Kavadarci, Kicevo, Kisela Voda (Skopje), Kocani, Konce, Kratovo, Kriva Palanka, Krivogastani, Krusevo, Kumanovo, Lipkovo, Lozovo, Makedonska Kamenica, Makedonski Brod, Mavrovo i Rastusa, Mogila, Negotino, Novaci, Novo Selo, Ohrid, Oslomej, Pehcevo, Petrovec, Plasnica, Prilep, Probistip, Radovis, Rankovce, Resen, Rosoman, Saraj (Skopje), Skopje, Sopiste, Staro Nagoricane, Stip, Struga, Strumica, Studenicani, Suto Orizari (Skopje), Sveti Nikole, Tearce, Tetovo, Valandovo, Vasilevo, Veles, Vevcani, Vinica, Vranestica, Vrapciste, Zajas, Zelenikovo, Zelino, Zrnovci
note: the ten municipalities followed by Skopje in parentheses collectively constitute "greater Skopje"

Independence:8 September 1991 (referendum by registered voters endorsing independence from Yugoslavia)
National holiday:Uprising Day, 2 August (1903); note - also known as Saint Elijah's Day and Ilinden
Constitution:adopted 17 November 1991, effective 20 November 1991; amended November 2001 by a series of new constitutional amendments strengthening minority rights
Legal system:based on civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts
Suffrage:18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:chief of state: President Branko CRVENKOVSKI (since 12 May 2004)
head of government: Prime Minister Vlado BUCKOVSKI (since 17 December 2004)
cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the majority vote of all the deputies in the Assembly; note - current cabinet formed by the government coalition parties SDSM, LDP, and BDI
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; two-round election last held 14 April and 28 April 2004 (next to be held April 2009); prime minister elected by the Assembly; election last held 1 November 2002 (next to be held NA 2006)
election results: Branko CRVENKOVSKI elected president on second-round ballot; percent of vote - Branko CRVENKOVSKI 62.7%, Sasko KEDEV 37.3%; Vlado BUCKOVSKI elected prime minister by the Assembly

Legislative branch:unicameral Assembly or Sobranie (120 seats - members elected by popular vote from party lists based on the percentage of the overall vote the parties gain in each of six electoral districts; all serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 15 September 2002 (next to be held NA 2006)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Together for Macedonia coalition 60 (SDSM 43, LDP 12, others 5), VMRO-DPMNE 33 (VMRO 28 and LDT 5), Democratic Union for Integration 16, Democratic Party of Albanians 7, Party for Democratic Prosperity 2, National Democratic Party 1, Socialist Party of Macedonia 1

Judicial branch:Supreme Court - the Assembly appoints the judges; Constitutional Court - the Assembly appoints the judges; Republican Judicial Council - the Assembly appoints the judges
Political parties and leaders:Democratic Alliance [Pavle TRAJANOV]; Democratic Alternative or DA [Vasil TUPURKOVSKI, president]; Democratic League of the Bosniaks [Rafet MUMINOVIC]; Democratic Party of Albanians or PDSH/DPA [Arben XHAFERI, president]; Democratic Party of Serbs [Ivan STOILJKOVIC]; Democratic Party of Turks [Kenan HASIPI]; Democratic Republican Union of Macedonia or DRUM [Dosta DIMOVSKA]; Democratic Union of Vlachs for Macedonia [leader NA]; Democratic Union for Integration or BDI/DUI [Ali AHMETI]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-Agrarian Party or VMRO-Agrarian Party [Marjan GJORCEV]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-Democratic Party for Macedonian National Unity or VMRO-DPMNE (including VMRO and LDT) [Nikola GRUEVSKI]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-True Macedonian Option or VMRO-Vistinska [Boris ZMEJKOVSKI]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-Macedonian [Boris STOJMENOV]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-People's Party or VMRO-Narodna [Vesna JANEVSKA]; League for Democracy [Gjorgi MARJANOVIC]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Risto PENOV]; Liberal Party [Stojan ANDOV]; National Democratic Party or PDK [Basri HALITI]; National Farmers' Party [Vejljo TANTAROV]; Party for Democratic Prosperity or PPD/PDP [Abduljhadi VEJSELI]; Social Democratic Alliance of Macedonia or SDSM [Vlado BUCKOVSKI, president]; Socialist Party of Macedonia or SP [Ljubisav IVANOV, president]; Together for Macedonia coalition (including the SDSM and LDP) [Vlado BUCKOVSI]; United Party for Emancipation or OPE [Nezdet MUSTAFA]
Political pressure groups and leaders:Civic Movement of Macedonia [Gordana SILJANOVSKA]; Movement for Macedonia's Euro-Atlantic Integration [Dosta DIMOVSKA]
International organization participation:ACCT, BIS, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, MIGA, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Flag description:a yellow sun with eight broadening rays extending to the edges of the red field
EconomyTop
Economy - overview:At independence in September 1991, Macedonia was the least developed of the Yugoslav republics, producing a mere 5% of the total federal output of goods and services. The collapse of Yugoslavia ended transfer payments from the center and eliminated advantages from inclusion in a de facto free trade area. An absence of infrastructure, UN sanctions on the down-sized Yugoslavia, one of its largest markets, and a Greek economic embargo over a dispute about the country's constitutional name and flag hindered economic growth until 1996. GDP subsequently rose each year through 2000. However, the leadership's commitment to economic reform, free trade, and regional integration was undermined by the ethnic Albanian insurgency of 2001. The economy shrank 4.5% because of decreased trade, intermittent border closures, increased deficit spending on security needs, and investor uncertainty. Growth barely recovered in 2002 to 0.9%, then rose by a moderate 3.4% in 2003, and is estimated at 1.3% in 2004. Unemployment at one-third of the workforce remains a critical economic problem. Much of the extensive grey market activity falls outside official statistics.
GDP:purchasing power parity - $14.4 billion (2004 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:1.3% (2004 est.)
GDP - per capita:purchasing power parity - $7,100 (2004 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:agriculture: 11.2%
industry: 26%
services: 62.8% (2004 est.)

Labor force:855,000 (2004 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%
Unemployment rate:37.7% (3rd quarter, 2004 est.)
Population below poverty line:30.2% (2003 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):0.4% (2004 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):17.5% of GDP (2004 est.)
Budget:revenues: $1.198 billion
expenditures: $1.245 billion, including capital expenditures of $114 million (2004 est.)

Public debt:20% of GDP (2004 est.)
Agriculture - products:wheat, grapes, rice, tobacco, corn, millet, cotton, sesame, mulberry leaves, citrus, vegetables; beef, pork, poultry, mutton
Industries:coal, metallic chromium, lead, zinc, ferronickel, textiles, wood products, tobacco, food processing, buses, steel
Industrial production growth rate:0% (2004 est.)
Electricity - production:6.273 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - production by source:fossil fuel: 83.7%
hydro: 16.3%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:7.216 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports:0 kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports:953 million kWh (2003)
Oil - production:0 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - consumption:22,000 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - exports:NA
Oil - imports:NA
Current account balance:$-311 million (2004 est.)
Exports:$1.629 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Exports - commodities:food, beverages, tobacco; miscellaneous manufactures, iron and steel
Exports - partners:Serbia and Montenegro 30.8%, Germany 20.1%, Greece 9%, Croatia 7%, US 4.8% (2004)
Imports:$2.677 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Imports - commodities:machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels; food products, automobiles
Imports - partners:Greece 18%, Germany 14.4%, Serbia and Montenegro 9.3%, Slovenia 8.1%, Bulgaria 7.6%, Turkey 7% (2004)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:$928 million (2004 est.)
Debt - external:$1.863 billion (2004 est.)
Currency (code):Macedonian denar (MKD)
Currency code:MKD
Exchange rates:Macedonian denars per US dollar - 49.41 (2004), 54.32 (2003), 64.35 (2002), 68.04 (2001), 65.9 (2000)
Fiscal year:calendar year
CommunicationsTop
Telephones - main lines in use:560,000 (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular:830,000 (2005)
Telephone system:general assessment: NA
domestic: NA
international: country code - 389

Radio broadcast stations:AM 29, FM 20, shortwave 0 (1998)
Radios:410,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations:31 (plus 166 repeaters) (1995)
Televisions:510,000 (1997)
Internet country code:.mk
Internet hosts:3,738 (2004)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):6 (2000)
Internet users:100,000 (2002)
TransportationTop
Railways:total: 699 km
standard gauge: 699 km 1.435-m gauge (233 km electrified) (2004)

Highways:total: 8,684 km
paved: 5,540 km (including 133 km of expressways)
unpaved: 3,144 km (1999 est.)

Pipelines:gas 268 km; oil 120 km (2004)
Airports:17 (2004 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:total: 10
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
under 914 m: 8 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:total: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 4 (2004 est.)

MilitaryTop
Military branches:Army of the Republic of Macedonia (ARM; includes Air and Air Defense Command)
Military manpower - military age and obligation:conscription to be phased out by 2007; current tour of conscript duty is 6 months; 18 years of age for voluntary military service (January 2005)
Military manpower - availability:males age 18-49: 498,259 (2005 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:males age 18-49: 411,156 (2005 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:males: 16,686 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:$200 million (FY01/02 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:6% (FY01/02 est.)
Transnational IssuesTop
Disputes - international:ethnic Albanians in Kosovo object to demarcation of the boundary with Macedonia in accordance with the 2000 Macedonia-Serbia and Montenegro delimitation agreement; Greece continues to reject the use of the name Macedonia or Republic of Macedonia
Refugees and internally displaced persons::IDPs: 2,678 (ethnic conflict in 2001; most IDPs have returned) (2004)
Illicit drugs:major transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and hashish; minor transit point for South American cocaine destined for Europe; although most criminal activity is thought to be domestic and not a financial center, money laundering is a problem due to a mostly cash-based economy and weak enforcement (no arrests or prosecutions for money laundering to date)



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