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By Exit Pages > Visit Detail > Country Facts for Angola
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Map of Angola
IntroductionTop
Background:Angola has begun to enjoy the fruits of peace since the end of a 27-year civil war in 2002. Fighting between the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), led by Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS, and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), led by Jonas SAVIMBI, followed independence from Portugal in 1975. Peace seemed imminent in 1992 when Angola held national elections, but UNITA renewed fighting after being beaten by the MPLA at the polls. Up to 1.5 million lives may have been lost - and 4 million people displaced - in the quarter century of fighting. SAVIMBI's death in 2002 ended UNITA's insurgency and strengthened the MPLA's hold on power. DOS SANTOS has pledged to hold national elections in 2006.
GeographyTop
Location:Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Namibia and Democratic Republic of the Congo
Geographic coordinates:12 30 S, 18 30 E
Map references:Africa
Area:total: 1,246,700 sq km
land: 1,246,700 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land boundaries:total: 5,198 km
border countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,511 km (of which 225 km is the boundary of discontiguous Cabinda Province), Republic of the Congo 201 km, Namibia 1,376 km, Zambia 1,110 km

Coastline:1,600 km
Maritime claims:territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate:semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has cool, dry season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to April)
Terrain:narrow coastal plain rises abruptly to vast interior plateau
Elevation extremes:lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Morro de Moco 2,620 m

Natural resources:petroleum, diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, copper, feldspar, gold, bauxite, uranium
Land use:arable land: 2.41%
permanent crops: 0.24%
other: 97.35% (2001)

Irrigated land:750 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:locally heavy rainfall causes periodic flooding on the plateau
Environment - current issues:overuse of pastures and subsequent soil erosion attributable to population pressures; desertification; deforestation of tropical rain forest, in response to both international demand for tropical timber and to domestic use as fuel, resulting in loss of biodiversity; soil erosion contributing to water pollution and siltation of rivers and dams; inadequate supplies of potable water
Environment - international agreements:party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:the province of Cabinda is an exclave, separated from the rest of the country by the Democratic Republic of the Congo
PeopleTop
Population:11,190,786 (July 2005 est.)
Age structure:0-14 years: 43.4% (male 2,454,209/female 2,407,083)
15-64 years: 53.7% (male 3,059,339/female 2,955,060)
65 years and over: 2.8% (male 139,961/female 175,134) (2005 est.)

Median age:total: 18.12 years
male: 18.12 years
female: 18.11 years (2005 est.)

Population growth rate:1.9% (2005 est.)
Birth rate:44.64 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Death rate:25.9 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Net migration rate:0.28 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2005 est.)

Infant mortality rate:total: 191.19 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 203.68 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 178.07 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:total population: 36.61 years
male: 36 years
female: 37.25 years (2005 est.)

Total fertility rate:6.27 children born/woman (2005 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:3.9% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:240,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:21,000 (2003 est.)
Nationality:noun: Angolan(s)
adjective: Angolan

Ethnic groups:Ovimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%, mestico (mixed European and native African) 2%, European 1%, other 22%
Religions:indigenous beliefs 47%, Roman Catholic 38%, Protestant 15% (1998 est.)
Languages:Portuguese (official), Bantu and other African languages
Literacy:definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 42%
male: 56%
female: 28% (1998 est.)

GovernmentTop
Country name:conventional long form: Republic of Angola
conventional short form: Angola
local long form: Republica de Angola
local short form: Angola
former: People's Republic of Angola

Government type:republic, nominally a multiparty democracy with a strong presidential system
Capital:Luanda
Administrative divisions:18 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Bengo, Benguela, Bie, Cabinda, Cuando Cubango, Cuanza Norte, Cuanza Sul, Cunene, Huambo, Huila, Luanda, Lunda Norte, Lunda Sul, Malanje, Moxico, Namibe, Uige, Zaire
Independence:11 November 1975 (from Portugal)
National holiday:Independence Day, 11 November (1975)
Constitution:11 November 1975; revised 7 January 1978, 11 August 1980, 6 March 1991, and 26 August 1992; note - new constitution has not yet been approved
Legal system:based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law; recently modified to accommodate political pluralism and increased use of free markets
Suffrage:18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:chief of state: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21 September 1979); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21 September 1979); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government; Fernando de Piedade Dias DOS SANTOS was appointed Prime Minister on 6 December 2002, but this is not a position of real power
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: president elected by universal ballot for a five-year term; President DOS SANTOS originally elected (in 1979) without opposition under a one-party system and stood for reelection in Angola's first multiparty elections 29-30 September 1992 (next to be held September 2006)
election results: DOS SANTOS 49.6%, Jonas SAVIMBI 40.1%, making a run-off election necessary; the run-off was not held and SAVIMBI's National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) repudiated the results of the first election; the civil war resumed

Legislative branch:unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional (220 seats; members elected by proportional vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 29-30 September 1992 (next to be held September 2006)
election results: percent of vote by party - MPLA 54%, UNITA 34%, others 12%; seats by party - MPLA 129, UNITA 70, PRS 6, FNLA 5, PLD 3, others 7

Judicial branch:Supreme Court or Tribunal da Relacao (judges are appointed by the president)
Political parties and leaders:Liberal Democratic Party or PLD [Analia de Victoria PEREIRA]; National Front for the Liberation of Angola or FNLA [disputed leadership: Lucas NGONDA, Holden ROBERTO]; National Union for the Total Independence of Angola or UNITA [Isaias SAMAKUVA], largest opposition party has engaged in years of armed resistance; Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola or MPLA [Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS], ruling party in power since 1975; Social Renewal Party or PRS [disputed leadership: Eduardo KUANGANA, Antonio MUACHICUNGO]
note: about a dozen minor parties participated in the 1992 elections but only won a few seats and have little influence in the National Assembly

Political pressure groups and leaders:Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda or FLEC [N'zita Henriques TIAGO, Antonio Bento BEMBE]
note: FLEC is waging a small-scale, highly factionalized, armed struggle for the independence of Cabinda Province

International organization participation:ACP, AfDB, AU, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MIGA, NAM, OAS (observer), SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Flag description:two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and black with a centered yellow emblem consisting of a five-pointed star within half a cogwheel crossed by a machete (in the style of a hammer and sickle)
EconomyTop
Economy - overview:Angola has been an economy in disarray because of a quarter century of nearly continuous warfare. An apparently durable peace was established after the death of rebel leader Jonas SAVIMBI in February 2002, but consequences from the conflict continue including the impact of widespread land mines. Subsistence agriculture provides the main livelihood for 85% of the population. Oil production and the supporting activities are vital to the economy, contributing about 45% to GDP and more than half of exports. Much of the country's food must still be imported. To fully take advantage of its rich natural resources - gold, diamonds, extensive forests, Atlantic fisheries, and large oil deposits - Angola will need to continue reforming government policies and to reduce corruption. While Angola made progress in further lowering inflation, from 325% in 2000 to about 106% in 2002, the government has failed to make sufficient progress on reforms recommended by the IMF such as increasing foreign exchange reserves and promoting greater transparency in government spending. Increased oil production supported 7% GDP growth in 2003 and 12% growth in 2004.
GDP:purchasing power parity - $23.17 billion (2004 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:11.7% (2004 est.)
GDP - per capita:purchasing power parity - $2,100 (2004 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:agriculture: 8%
industry: 67%
services: 25% (2001 est.)

Labor force:5.41 million (2004 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:agriculture 85%, industry and services 15% (2003 est.)
Unemployment rate:extensive unemployment and underemployment affecting more than half the population (2001 est.)
Population below poverty line:70% (2003 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: NA
highest 10%: NA

Inflation rate (consumer prices):43.8% (2004 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):34.5% of GDP (2004 est.)
Budget:revenues: $9.013 billion
expenditures: $9.562 billion, including capital expenditures of $963 million (2004 est.)

Agriculture - products:bananas, sugarcane, coffee, sisal, corn, cotton, manioc (tapioca), tobacco, vegetables, plantains; livestock; forest products; fish
Industries:petroleum; diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, feldspar, bauxite, uranium, and gold; cement; basic metal products; fish processing; food processing; brewing; tobacco products; sugar; textiles, ship repair
Industrial production growth rate:1% (2000)
Electricity - production:1.707 billion kWh (2002)
Electricity - production by source:fossil fuel: 36.4%
hydro: 63.6%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:1.587 billion kWh (2002)
Electricity - exports:0 kWh (2002)
Electricity - imports:0 kWh (2002)
Oil - production:980,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil - consumption:31,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:NA
Oil - imports:NA
Oil - proved reserves:22.88 billion bbl (2004 est.)
Natural gas - production:530 million cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:530 million cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:79.57 billion cu m (2004)
Current account balance:$-37.88 million (2004 est.)
Exports:$12.76 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Exports - commodities:crude oil, diamonds, refined petroleum products, gas, coffee, sisal, fish and fish products, timber, cotton
Exports - partners:US 39.8%, China 30.3%, Taiwan 8.1%, France 7.1% (2004)
Imports:$4.896 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Imports - commodities:machinery and electrical equipment, vehicles and spare parts; medicines, food, textiles, military goods
Imports - partners:Portugal 18.4%, US 13.1%, South Africa 10.7%, Japan 6.9%, France 6.3%, Brazil 5.6%, UK 4.9%, China 4.5% (2004)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:$800 million (2004 est.)
Debt - external:$10.45 billion (2004 est.)
Currency (code):kwanza (AOA)
Currency code:AOA
Exchange rates:kwanza per US dollar - 83.541 (2004), 74.606 (2003), 43.53 (2002), 22.058 (2001), 10.041 (2000)
Fiscal year:calendar year
CommunicationsTop
Telephones - main lines in use:96,300 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular:130,000 (2002)
Telephone system:general assessment: telephone service limited mostly to government and business use; HF radiotelephone used extensively for military links
domestic: limited system of wire, microwave radio relay, and tropospheric scatter
international: country code - 244; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); fiber optic submarine cable (SAT-3/WASC) provides connectivity to Europe and Asia

Radio broadcast stations:AM 21, FM 6, shortwave 7 (2000)
Radios:815,000 (2000)
Television broadcast stations:6 (2000)
Televisions:196,000 (2000)
Internet country code:.ao
Internet hosts:17 (2003)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):1 (2000)
Internet users:41,000 (2002)
TransportationTop
Railways:total: 2,761 km
narrow gauge: 2,638 km 1.067-m gauge; 123 km 0.600-m gauge (2004)

Highways:total: 51,429 km
paved: 5,328 km
unpaved: 46,101 km (2001)

Waterways:1,300 km (2004)
Pipelines:gas 214 km; liquid natural gas 14 km; liquid petroleum gas 30 km; oil 837 km; refined products 56 km (2004)
Ports and harbors:Cabinda, Luanda, Soyo
Merchant marine:total: 4 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 26,123 GRT/42,879 DWT
by type: cargo 1, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 1
registered in other countries: 4 (2005)

Airports:243 (2004 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:total: 32
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 1 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:total: 211
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 30
914 to 1,523 m: 95
under 914 m: 80 (2004 est.)

MilitaryTop
Military branches:Army, Navy (Marinha de Guerra, MdG), Air and Air Defense Forces (FANA)
Military manpower - military age and obligation:17 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation - 2 years plus time for training (2001)
Military manpower - availability:males age 17-49: 2,423,221 (2005 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:males age 17-49: 1,174,548 (2005 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:males: 121,254 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:$183.58 million (2004)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:10.6% (2004)
Transnational IssuesTop
Disputes - international:90,000 Angolan refugees were repatriated by 2004, the remaining refugees in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia are expected to return in 2005; many Cabinda exclave secessionists have sought shelter in neighboring states
Refugees and internally displaced persons::IDPs: 40,000-60,000 (27-year civil war ending in 2002; 4 million IDPs already have returned) (2004)
Illicit drugs:used as a transshipment point for cocaine destined for Western Europe and other African states



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