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By Entry Pages > Visit Detail > Country Facts for Slovenia
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Map of Slovenia
IntroductionTop
Background:The Slovene lands were part of the Holy Roman Empire and Austria until 1918 when the Slovenes joined the Serbs and Croats in forming a new multinational state, renamed Yugoslavia in 1929. After World War II, Slovenia became a republic of the renewed Yugoslavia, which though Communist, distanced itself from Moscow's rule. Dissatisfied with the exercise of power by the majority Serbs, the Slovenes succeeded in establishing their independence in 1991 after a short 10-day war. Historical ties to Western Europe, a strong economy, and a stable democracy have assisted in Slovenia's transformation to a modern state. Slovenia acceded to both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004.
GeographyTop
Location:Central Europe, eastern Alps bordering the Adriatic Sea, between Austria and Croatia
Geographic coordinates:46 07 N, 14 49 E
Map references:Europe
Area:total: 20,273 sq km
land: 20,151 sq km
water: 122 sq km

Area - comparative:slightly smaller than New Jersey
Land boundaries:total: 1,334 km
border countries: Austria 330 km, Croatia 670 km, Italy 232 km, Hungary 102 km

Coastline:46.6 km
Maritime claims:NA
Climate:Mediterranean climate on the coast, continental climate with mild to hot summers and cold winters in the plateaus and valleys to the east
Terrain:a short coastal strip on the Adriatic, an alpine mountain region adjacent to Italy and Austria, mixed mountains and valleys with numerous rivers to the east
Elevation extremes:lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Triglav 2,864 m

Natural resources:lignite coal, lead, zinc, mercury, uranium, silver, hydropower, forests
Land use:arable land: 8.6%
permanent crops: 1.49%
other: 89.91% (2001)

Irrigated land:20 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:flooding and earthquakes
Environment - current issues:Sava River polluted with domestic and industrial waste; pollution of coastal waters with heavy metals and toxic chemicals; forest damage near Koper from air pollution (originating at metallurgical and chemical plants) and resulting acid rain
Environment - international agreements:party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants

Geography - note:despite its small size, this eastern Alpine country controls some of Europe's major transit routes
PeopleTop
Population:2,011,070 (July 2005 est.)
Age structure:0-14 years: 14% (male 145,016/female 137,012)
15-64 years: 70.6% (male 715,629/female 704,079)
65 years and over: 15.4% (male 118,298/female 191,036) (2005 est.)

Median age:total: 40.23 years
male: 38.65 years
female: 41.75 years (2005 est.)

Population growth rate:-0.03% (2005 est.)
Birth rate:8.95 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Death rate:10.22 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Net migration rate:1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Sex ratio:at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2005 est.)

Infant mortality rate:total: 4.45 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 5.05 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:total population: 76.14 years
male: 72.42 years
female: 80.1 years (2005 est.)

Total fertility rate:1.24 children born/woman (2005 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:less than 0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:280 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:less than 100 (2003 est.)
Nationality:noun: Slovene(s)
adjective: Slovenian

Ethnic groups:Slovene 83.1%, Serb 2%, Croat 1.8%, Bosniak 1.1%, other or unspecified 12% (2002 census)
Religions:Catholic 57.8%, Orthodox 2.3%, other Christian 0.9%, Muslim 2.4%, unaffiliated 3.5%, other or unspecified 23%, none 10.1% (2002 census)
Languages:Slovenian 91.1%, Serbo-Croatian 4.5%, other or unspecified 4.4% (2002 census)
Literacy:definition: NA
total population: 99.7%
male: 99.7%
female: 99.6% (2003 est.)

GovernmentTop
Country name:conventional long form: Republic of Slovenia
conventional short form: Slovenia
local long form: Republika Slovenija
local short form: Slovenija
former: People's Republic of Slovenia, Socialist Republic of Slovenia

Government type:parliamentary democratic republic
Capital:Ljubljana
Administrative divisions:182 municipalities (obcine, singular - obcina) and 11 urban municipalities* (mestne obcine , singular - mestna obcina ) Ajdovscina, Beltinci, Benedikt, Bistrica ob Sotli, Bled, Bloke, Bohinj, Borovnica, Bovec, Braslovce, Brda, Brezice, Brezovica, Cankova, Celje*, Cerklje na Gorenjskem, Cerknica, Cerkno, Cerkvenjak, Crensovci, Crna na Koroskem, Crnomelj, Destrnik, Divaca, Dobje, Dobrepolje, Dobrna, Dobrova-Horjul-Polhov Gradec, Dobrovnik-Dobronak, Dolenjske Toplice, Dol pri Ljubljani, Domzale, Dornava, Dravograd, Duplek, Gorenja Vas-Poljane, Gorisnica, Gornja Radgona, Gornji Grad, Gornji Petrovci, Grad, Grosuplje, Hajdina, Hoce-Slivnica, Hodos-Hodos, Horjul, Hrastnik, Hrpelje-Kozina, Idrija, Ig, Ilirska Bistrica, Ivancna Gorica, Izola-Isola, Jesenice, Jezersko, Jursinci, Kamnik, Kanal, Kidricevo, Kobarid, Kobilje, Kocevje, Komen, Komenda, Koper-Capodistria*, Kostel, Kozje, Kranj*, Kranjska Gora, Krizevci, Krsko, Kungota, Kuzma, Lasko, Lenart, Lendava-Lendva, Litija, Ljubljana*, Ljubno, Ljutomer, Logatec, Loska Dolina, Loski Potok, Lovrenc na Pohorju, Luce, Lukovica, Majsperk, Maribor*, Markovci, Medvode, Menges, Metlika, Mezica, Miklavz na Dravskem Polju, Miren-Kostanjevica, Mirna Pec, Mislinja, Moravce, Moravske Toplice, Mozirje, Murska Sobota*, Muta, Naklo, Nazarje, Nova Gorica*, Novo Mesto*, Odranci, Oplotnica, Ormoz, Osilnica, Pesnica, Piran-Pirano, Pivka, Podcetrtek, Podlehnik, Podvelka, Polzela, Postojna, Prebold, Preddvor, Prevalje, Ptuj*, Puconci, Race-Fram, Radece, Radenci, Radlje ob Dravi, Radovljica, Ravne na Koroskem, Razkrizje, Ribnica, Ribnica na Pohorju, Rogasovci, Rogaska Slatina, Rogatec, Ruse, Salovci, Selnica ob Dravi, Semic, Sempeter-Vrtojba, Sencur, Sentilj, Sentjernej, Sentjur pri Celju, Sevnica, Sezana, Skocjan, Skofja Loka, Skofljica, Slovenj Gradec*, Slovenska Bistrica, Slovenske Konjice, Smarje pri Jelsah, Smartno ob Paki, Smartno pri Litiji, Sodrazica, Solcava, Sostanj, Starse, Store, Sveta Ana, Sveti Andraz v Slovenskih Goricah, Sveti Jurij, Tabor, Tisina, Tolmin, Trbovlje, Trebnje, Trnovska Vas, Trzic, Trzin, Turnisce, Velenje*, Velika Polana, Velike Lasce, Verzej, Videm, Vipava, Vitanje, Vodice, Vojnik, Vransko, Vrhnika, Vuzenica, Zagorje ob Savi, Zalec, Zavrc, Zelezniki, Zetale, Ziri, Zirovnica, Zuzemberk, Zrece
note: there may be 45 more municipalities

Independence:25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)
National holiday:Independence Day/Statehood Day, 25 June (1991)
Constitution:adopted 23 December 1991, effective 23 December 1991
Legal system:based on civil law system
Suffrage:18 years of age; universal (16 years of age, if employed)
Executive branch:chief of state: President Janez DRNOVSEK (since 22 December 2002)
head of government: Prime Minister Janez JANSA (since 9 November 2004)
cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister and elected by the National Assembly
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 10 November and 1 December 2002 (next to be held in the fall of 2007); following National Assembly elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually nominated to become prime minister by the president and elected by the National Assembly; election last held 9 November 2004 (next National Assembly elections to be held October 2008)
election results: Janez DRNOVSEK elected president; percent of vote - Janez DRNOVSEK 56.5%, Barbara BREZIGAR 43.5%; Janez JANSA elected prime minister; National Assembly vote - 57 to 27

Legislative branch:bicameral Parliament consisting of a National Assembly or Drzavni Zbor (90 seats; 40 are directly elected and 50 are selected on a proportional basis; note - the numbers of directly elected and proportionally elected seats varies with each election; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) and the National Council or Drzavni Svet (this is primarily an advisory body organized on corporatist principles with limited legislative powers; it may propose laws, ask to review any National Assembly decisions, and call national referenda; members are indirectly elected to five-year terms by an electoral college)
elections: National Assembly - last held 3 October 2004 (next to be held October 2008)
election results: percent of vote by party - SDS 29.1%, LDS 22.8%, ZLSD 10.2%, NSi 9%, SLS 6.8%, SNS 6.3%, DeSUS 4.1%, other 11.7%; seats by party - SDS 29, LDS 23, ZLSD 10, NSi 9, SLS 7, SNS 6, DeSUS 4, Hungarian and Italian minorities 1 each

Judicial branch:Supreme Court (judges are elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the Judicial Council); Constitutional Court (judges elected for nine-year terms by the National Assembly and nominated by the president)
Political parties and leaders:Democratic Party of Retired (Persons) of Slovenia or DeSUS [Anton ROUS]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDS [Anton ROP]; New Slovenia or NSi [Andrej BAJUK]; Slovene Democratic Party or SDS [Janez JANSA]; Slovene National Party or SNS [Zmago JELINCIC]; Slovene People's Party or SLS [Janez PODOBNIK]; Slovene Youth Party or SMS [Darko KRANJC]; United List of Social Democrats or ZLSD [Borut PAHOR]
Political pressure groups and leaders:NA
International organization participation:Australia Group, BIS, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EU (new member), FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MIGA, NAM (guest), NATO, NSG, OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIK, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WEU (member affiliate), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO, ZC
Flag description:three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red, with the Slovenian seal (a shield with the image of Triglav, Slovenia's highest peak, in white against a blue background at the center; beneath it are two wavy blue lines depicting seas and rivers, and above it are three six-pointed stars arranged in an inverted triangle, which are taken from the coat of arms of the Counts of Celje, the great Slovene dynastic house of the late 14th and early 15th centuries); the seal is located in the upper hoist side of the flag centered in the white and blue bands
EconomyTop
Economy - overview:Slovenia, with its historical ties to Western Europe, enjoys a GDP per capita substantially higher than that of the other transitioning economies of Central Europe. In March 2004, Slovenia became the first transition country to graduate from borrower status to donor partner at the World Bank. Privatization of the economy proceeded at an accelerated pace in 2002-04. Despite lackluster performance in Europe in 2001-04, Slovenia maintained moderate growth. Structural reforms to improve the business environment have allowed for greater foreign participation in Slovenia's economy and have helped to lower unemployment. Further measures to curb inflation are still needed. Corruption and the high degree of coordination between government, business, and central bank policy were issues of concern in the run-up to Slovenia's 1 May 2004 accession to the European Union. In mid-2004 Slovenia agreed to adopt the euro by 2007 and, therefore, must keep its debt levels, budget deficits, interest rates, and inflation levels within the EU's Maastrict criteria.
GDP:purchasing power parity - $39.41 billion (2004 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:3.9% (2004 est.)
GDP - per capita:purchasing power parity - $19,600 (2004 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:agriculture: 3%
industry: 36%
services: 60% (2004 est.)

Labor force:870,000 (2004 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:agriculture 6%, industry 40%, services 55% (2002)
Unemployment rate:6.4% (2004 est.)
Population below poverty line:NA
Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: 3.9%
highest 10%: 23% (1998)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:28.4 (1998)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):3.3% (2004 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):24.9% of GDP (2004 est.)
Budget:revenues: $13.36 billion
expenditures: $13.99 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

Public debt:31.5% of GDP (2004 est.)
Agriculture - products:potatoes, hops, wheat, sugar beets, corn, grapes; cattle, sheep, poultry
Industries:ferrous metallurgy and aluminum products, lead and zinc smelting, electronics (including military electronics), trucks, electric power equipment, wood products, textiles, chemicals, machine tools
Industrial production growth rate:3.9% (2004 est.)
Electricity - production:12.49 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - production by source:fossil fuel: 35.2%
hydro: 27.3%
nuclear: 36.8%
other: 0.7% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:11.8 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports:7.448 billion kWh (2002)
Electricity - imports:5.194 billion kWh (2002)
Oil - production:20 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:53,300 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:NA
Oil - imports:NA
Natural gas - production:0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:1.04 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:1.04 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Current account balance:$-51.64 million (2004 est.)
Exports:$14.97 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Exports - commodities:manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, food
Exports - partners:Germany 18.4%, Austria 11.4%, Italy 11.1%, Croatia 7.6%, France 7.5%, Bosnia and Herzegovina 4.6% (2004)
Imports:$16.07 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Imports - commodities:machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, chemicals, fuels and lubricants, food
Imports - partners:Germany 20.1%, Italy 17%, Austria 14.1%, France 10.4% (2004)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:$8.493 billion (2004 est.)
Debt - external:$14.65 billion (2004 est.)
Currency (code):tolar (SIT)
Currency code:SIT
Exchange rates:tolars per US dollar - 192.38 (2004), 207.11 (2003), 240.25 (2002), 242.75 (2001), 222.66 (2000)
Fiscal year:calendar year
CommunicationsTop
Telephones - main lines in use:812,300 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular:1,739,100 (2003)
Telephone system:general assessment: NA
domestic: 100% digital (2000)
international: country code - 386

Radio broadcast stations:AM 17, FM 160, shortwave 0 (1998)
Radios:805,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations:48 (2001)
Televisions:710,000 (1997)
Internet country code:.si
Internet hosts:45,491 (2004)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):11 (2000)
Internet users:750,000 (2002)
TransportationTop
Railways:total: 1,201 km
standard gauge: 1,201 km 1.435-m gauge (499 km electrified) (2004)

Highways:total: 20,250 km
paved: 20,250 km (including 456 km of expressways)
unpaved: 0 km (2002)

Pipelines:gas 2,526 km; oil 11 km (2004)
Ports and harbors:Izola, Koper, Piran
Merchant marine:registered in other countries: 23
Airports:14 (2004 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:total: 6
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 1 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:total: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 4 (2004 est.)

MilitaryTop
Military branches:Slovenian Army (includes Air and Naval Forces)
Military manpower - military age and obligation:17 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription abolished in 2003 (2004)
Military manpower - availability:males age 17-49: 496,929 (2005 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:males age 17-49: 405,593 (2005 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:males: 12,816 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:$370 million (FY00)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:1.7% (FY00)
Transnational IssuesTop
Disputes - international:the Croatia-Slovenia land and maritime boundary agreement, which would have ceded most of Piran Bay and maritime access to Slovenia and several villages to Croatia, remains unratified and in dispute; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Slovenia must implement the strict Schengen border rules to curb illegal migration and commerce through southeastern Europe while encouraging close cross-border ties with Croatia
Illicit drugs:minor transit point for cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin bound for Western Europe, and for precursor chemicals



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