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Who's On? > Visit Detail > Country Facts for Gibraltar
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Introduction Geography People Government Economy Communications Transportation Military Transnational Issues
Map of Gibraltar
IntroductionTop
Background:Strategically important, Gibraltar was ceded to Great Britain by Spain in the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht; the British garrison was formally declared a colony in 1830. In referendums held in 1967 and 2002, Gibraltarians ignored Spanish pressure and voted overwhelmingly to remain a British dependency.
GeographyTop
Location:Southwestern Europe, bordering the Strait of Gibraltar, which links the Mediterranean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, on the southern coast of Spain
Geographic coordinates:36 8 N, 5 21 W
Map references:Europe
Area:total: 6.5 sq km
land: 6.5 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:about 11 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries:total: 1.2 km
border countries: Spain 1.2 km

Coastline:12 km
Maritime claims:territorial sea: 3 nm
Climate:Mediterranean with mild winters and warm summers
Terrain:a narrow coastal lowland borders the Rock of Gibraltar
Elevation extremes:lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Rock of Gibraltar 426 m

Natural resources:none
Land use:arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 100% (2001)

Irrigated land:NA sq km
Natural hazards:NA
Environment - current issues:limited natural freshwater resources: large concrete or natural rock water catchments collect rainwater (no longer used for drinking water) and adequate desalination plant
Geography - note:strategic location on Strait of Gibraltar that links the North Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea
PeopleTop
Population:27,884 (July 2005 est.)
Age structure:0-14 years: 17.8% (male 2,529/female 2,426)
15-64 years: 66% (male 9,442/female 8,970)
65 years and over: 16.2% (male 2,008/female 2,509) (2005 est.)

Median age:total: 39.4 years
male: 39.12 years
female: 39.63 years (2005 est.)

Population growth rate:0.17% (2005 est.)
Birth rate:10.87 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Death rate:9.18 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Net migration rate:0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2005 est.)

Infant mortality rate:total: 5.13 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 5.71 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4.52 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:total population: 79.67 years
male: 76.8 years
female: 82.7 years (2005 est.)

Total fertility rate:1.65 children born/woman (2005 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:NA%
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths:NA
Nationality:noun: Gibraltarian(s)
adjective: Gibraltar

Ethnic groups:Spanish, Italian, English, Maltese, Portuguese, German, North Africans
Religions:Roman Catholic 78.1%, Church of England 7%, other Christian 3.2%, Muslim 4%, Jewish 2.1%, Hindu 1.8%, other or unspecified 0.9%, none 2.9% (2001 census)
Languages:English (used in schools and for official purposes), Spanish, Italian, Portuguese
Literacy:definition: NA
total population: above 80%
male: NA%
female: NA%

GovernmentTop
Country name:conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Gibraltar

Government type:NA
Capital:Gibraltar
Administrative divisions:none (overseas territory of the UK)
Independence:none (overseas territory of the UK)
National holiday:National Day, 10 September (1967); note - day of the national referendum to decide whether to remain with the UK or go with Spain
Constitution:30 May 1969
Legal system:English law
Suffrage:18 years of age; universal, plus other UK subjects who have been residents six months or more
Executive branch:chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor and Commander-in-Chief Sir Francis RICHARDS (since 27 May 2003)
head of government: Chief Minister Peter CARUANA (since 17 May 1996)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed from among the 15 elected members of the House of Assembly by the governor in consultation with the chief minister
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed chief minister by the governor

Legislative branch:unicameral House of Assembly (18 seats - 15 elected by popular vote, one appointed for the Speaker, and two ex officio members; members serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 27 November 2003 (next to be held not later than February 2008)
election results: percent of vote by party - GSD 58%, GSLP 41%; seats by party - GSD 8, GSLP 7

Judicial branch:Supreme Court; Court of Appeal
Political parties and leaders:Gibraltar Liberal Party [Joseph GARCIA]; Gibraltar Social Democrats or GSD [Peter CARUANA]; Gibraltar Socialist Labor Party or GSLP [Joseph John BOSSANO]
Political pressure groups and leaders:Chamber of Commerce; Gibraltar Representatives Organization; Women's Association
International organization participation:Interpol (subbureau), UPU
Flag description:two horizontal bands of white (top, double width) and red with a three-towered red castle in the center of the white band; hanging from the castle gate is a gold key centered in the red band
EconomyTop
Economy - overview:Self-sufficient Gibraltar benefits from an extensive shipping trade, offshore banking, and its position as an international conference center. The British military presence has been sharply reduced and now contributes about 7% to the local economy, compared with 60% in 1984. The financial sector, tourism (almost 5 million visitors in 1998), shipping services fees, and duties on consumer goods also generate revenue. The financial sector, the shipping sector, and tourism each contribute 25%-30% of GDP. Telecommunications accounts for another 10%. In recent years, Gibraltar has seen major structural change from a public to a private sector economy, but changes in government spending still have a major impact on the level of employment.
GDP:purchasing power parity - $769 million (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:NA%
GDP - per capita:purchasing power parity - $27,900 (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA% (2002 est.)

Labor force:14,800 (including non-Gibraltar laborers) (1999)
Labor force - by occupation:agriculture negligible, industry 40%, services 60%
Unemployment rate:2% (2001 est.)
Population below poverty line:NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):1.5% (1998)
Budget:revenues: $307 million
expenditures: $284 million, including capital expenditures of NA (FY00/01 est.)

Agriculture - products:none
Industries:tourism, banking and finance, ship repairing, tobacco
Industrial production growth rate:NA%
Electricity - production:104 million kWh (2002)
Electricity - production by source:fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:96.76 million kWh (2002)
Electricity - exports:0 kWh (2002)
Electricity - imports:0 kWh (2002)
Oil - production:0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:42,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:NA
Oil - imports:NA
Exports:$136 million f.o.b. (2002)
Exports - commodities:(principally reexports) petroleum 51%, manufactured goods 41%, other 8%
Exports - partners:France 21%, Spain 15.3%, Turkmenistan 12.5%, Germany 12.4%, UK 10%, Switzerland 8.9%, Greece 7.4% (2004)
Imports:$1.743 billion c.i.f. (2002)
Imports - commodities:fuels, manufactured goods, and foodstuffs
Imports - partners:Spain 22.6%, UK 12.8%, Russia 11.8%, Italy 9.8%, Germany 7.6%, France 4.7%, US 4.6%, Netherlands 4.4%, Turkey 4.3% (2004)
Debt - external:$NA (2000 est.)
Currency (code):Gibraltar pound (GIP)
Currency code:GIP
Exchange rates:Gibraltar pounds per US dollar - 0.5462 (2004), 0.6125 (2003), 0.6672 (2002), 0.6947 (2001), 0.6609 (2000)
note: the Gibraltar pound is at par with the British pound

Fiscal year:1 July - 30 June
CommunicationsTop
Telephones - main lines in use:24,512 (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular:9,797 (2002)
Telephone system:general assessment: adequate, automatic domestic system and adequate international facilities
domestic: automatic exchange facilities
international: country code - 350; radiotelephone; microwave radio relay; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:AM 1, FM 5, shortwave 0 (1998)
Radios:37,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations:1 (plus three low-power repeaters) (1997)
Televisions:10,000 (1997)
Internet country code:.gi
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):2 (2000)
Internet users:6,200 (2002)
TransportationTop
Highways:total: 29 km
paved: 29 km
unpaved: 0 km (2002)

Ports and harbors:Gibraltar
Merchant marine:total: 161 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 980,636 GRT/1,254,661 DWT
by type: barge carrier 3, bulk carrier 2, cargo 96, chemical tanker 21, container 22, passenger 3, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 11, roll on/roll off 2
foreign-owned: 142 (Belgium 1, Cyprus 1, Finland 1, France 1, Germany 105, Greece 12, Iceland 1, Ireland 1, Italy 1, Latvia 1, Norway 8, Sweden 2, Switzerland 1, Taiwan 1, United Kingdom 3, United States 2) (2005)

Airports:1 (2004 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2004 est.)

MilitaryTop
Military branches:Royal Gibraltar Regiment
Military note:defense is the responsibility of the UK; the last British regular infantry forces left Gibraltar in 1992, replaced by the Royal Gibraltar Regiment
Transnational IssuesTop
Disputes - international:in 2003, Gibraltar residents voted overwhelmingly by referendum to remain a British colony and against a "total shared sovereignty" arrangement while demanding participation in talks between the UK and Spain; Spain disapproves of UK plans to grant Gibraltar even greater autonomy

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