sitemeter

Remember Me 
 forgot codename/password?
 
 
Twisted Matrix Labs
By Referrals > Visit Detail > Country Facts for Italy
Visit 4,250,851
Introduction Geography People Government Economy Communications Transportation Military Transnational Issues
Map of Italy
IntroductionTop
Background:Italy became a nation-state in 1861 when the city-states of the peninsula, along with Sardinia and Sicily, were united under King Victor EMMANUEL II. An era of parliamentary government came to a close in the early 1920s when Benito MUSSOLINI established a Fascist dictatorship. His disastrous alliance with Nazi Germany led to Italy's defeat in World War II. A democratic republic replaced the monarchy in 1946 and economic revival followed. Italy was a charter member of NATO and the European Economic Community (EEC). It has been at the forefront of European economic and political unification, joining the Economic and Monetary Union in 1999. Persistent problems include illegal immigration, organized crime, corruption, high unemployment, sluggish economic growth, and the low incomes and technical standards of southern Italy compared with the prosperous north.
GeographyTop
Location:Southern Europe, a peninsula extending into the central Mediterranean Sea, northeast of Tunisia
Geographic coordinates:42 50 N, 12 50 E
Map references:Europe
Area:total: 301,230 sq km
land: 294,020 sq km
water: 7,210 sq km
note: includes Sardinia and Sicily

Area - comparative:slightly larger than Arizona
Land boundaries:total: 1,932.2 km
border countries: Austria 430 km, France 488 km, Holy See (Vatican City) 3.2 km, San Marino 39 km, Slovenia 232 km, Switzerland 740 km

Coastline:7,600 km
Maritime claims:territorial sea: 12 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

Climate:predominantly Mediterranean; Alpine in far north; hot, dry in south
Terrain:mostly rugged and mountainous; some plains, coastal lowlands
Elevation extremes:lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Mont Blanc (Monte Bianco) de Courmayeur 4,748 m (a secondary peak of Mont Blanc)

Natural resources:coal, mercury, zinc, potash, marble, barite, asbestos, pumice, fluorospar, feldspar, pyrite (sulfur), natural gas and crude oil reserves, fish, arable land
Land use:arable land: 27.79%
permanent crops: 9.53%
other: 62.68% (2001)

Irrigated land:26,980 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:regional risks include landslides, mudflows, avalanches, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, flooding; land subsidence in Venice
Environment - current issues:air pollution from industrial emissions such as sulfur dioxide; coastal and inland rivers polluted from industrial and agricultural effluents; acid rain damaging lakes; inadequate industrial waste treatment and disposal facilities
Environment - international agreements:party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants

Geography - note:strategic location dominating central Mediterranean as well as southern sea and air approaches to Western Europe
PeopleTop
Population:58,103,033 (July 2005 est.)
Age structure:0-14 years: 13.9% (male 4,166,213/female 3,919,288)
15-64 years: 66.7% (male 19,554,416/female 19,174,629)
65 years and over: 19.4% (male 4,698,441/female 6,590,046) (2005 est.)

Median age:total: 41.77 years
male: 40.24 years
female: 43.35 years (2005 est.)

Population growth rate:0.07% (2005 est.)
Birth rate:8.89 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Death rate:10.3 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Net migration rate:2.07 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Sex ratio:at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2005 est.)

Infant mortality rate:total: 5.94 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 6.55 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5.29 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:total population: 79.68 years
male: 76.75 years
female: 82.81 years (2005 est.)

Total fertility rate:1.28 children born/woman (2005 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:0.5% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:140,000 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:less than 1,000 (2003 est.)
Nationality:noun: Italian(s)
adjective: Italian

Ethnic groups:Italian (includes small clusters of German-, French-, and Slovene-Italians in the north and Albanian-Italians and Greek-Italians in the south)
Religions:predominately Roman Catholic with mature Protestant and Jewish communities and a growing Muslim immigrant community
Languages:Italian (official), German (parts of Trentino-Alto Adige region are predominantly German speaking), French (small French-speaking minority in Valle d'Aosta region), Slovene (Slovene-speaking minority in the Trieste-Gorizia area)
Literacy:definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98.6%
male: 99%
female: 98.3% (2003 est.)

GovernmentTop
Country name:conventional long form: Italian Republic
conventional short form: Italy
local long form: Repubblica Italiana
local short form: Italia
former: Kingdom of Italy

Government type:republic
Capital:Rome
Administrative divisions:16 regions (regioni, singular - regione) and 4 autonomous regions* (regioni autonome, singular - regione autonoma); Abruzzo, Basilicata, Calabria, Campania, Emilia-Romagna, Friuli-Venezia Giulia*, Lazio, Liguria, Lombardia, Marche, Molise, Piemonte, Puglia, Sardegna*, Sicilia, Toscana, Trentino-Alto Adige*, Umbria, Valle d'Aosta*, Veneto
Independence:17 March 1861 (Kingdom of Italy proclaimed; Italy was not finally unified until 1870)
National holiday:Republic Day, 2 June (1946)
Constitution:passed 11 December 1947; effective 1 January 1948; amended many times
Legal system:based on civil law system; appeals treated as new trials; judicial review under certain conditions in Constitutional Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:18 years of age; universal (except in senatorial elections, where minimum age is 25)
Executive branch:chief of state: President Carlo Azeglio CIAMPI (since 13 May 1999)
head of government: Prime Minister (referred to in Italy as the president of the Council of Ministers) Silvio BERLUSCONI (since 10 June 2001)
cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister and approved by the president
elections: president elected by an electoral college consisting of both houses of parliament and 58 regional representatives for a seven-year term; election last held 13 May 1999 (next to be held May 2006); prime minister appointed by the president and confirmed by parliament
election results: Carlo Azeglio CIAMPI elected president; percent of electoral college vote - 70%
note: a four-party government coalition includes Forza Italia, National Alliance, Northern League, and Union of Christian Democrats and Center Democrats

Legislative branch:bicameral Parliament or Parlamento consists of the Senate or Senato della Repubblica (315 seats elected by popular vote of which 232 are directly elected and 83 are elected by regional proportional representation; in addition, there are a small number of senators-for-life including former presidents of the republic; members serve five-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camera dei Deputati (630 seats; 475 are directly elected, 155 by regional proportional representation; members serve five-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held 13 May 2001 (next to be held 2006); Chamber of Deputies - last held 13 May 2001 (next to be held May 2006)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - House of Liberties 172 (Forza Italia 77, National Alliance 47, UDC 31, Lega Padana 17), Olive Tree 108 (Democrats of the Left 63, Daisy Alliance 35, Greens 10), Per le Autonomie 10, other 25; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - House of Liberties 337 (Forza Italia 176, National Alliance 97, UDC 36, Northern League 28), Olive Tree 214 (Democrats of the Left 135, Daisy Alliance 79), Rifondazione Communista (Italian Communist Party) 11, other 68

Judicial branch:Constitutional Court or Corte Costituzionale (composed of 15 judges: one-third appointed by the president, one-third elected by parliament, one-third elected by the ordinary and administrative Supreme Courts)
Political parties and leaders:Center-Left Olive Tree Coalition [Francesco RUTELLI] - Democrats of the Left, Daisy Alliance (including Italian Popular Party, Italian Renewal, Union of Democrats for Europe, The Democrats), Sunflower Alliance (including Green Federation, Italian Democratic Socialists), Italian Communist Party; Center-Right Freedom House Coalition [Silvio BERLUSCONI] (formerly House of Liberties and Freedom Alliance) - Forza Italia, National Alliance, The Whiteflower Alliance (includes Christian Democratic Center, United Christian Democrats), Northern League; Democrats of the Left or DS [Piero FASSINO]; Forza Italia or FI [Silvio BERLUSCONI]; Green Federation [Alfonso Pecoraro SCANIO]; Italian Communist Party or PdCI [Armando COSSUTTA]; Italian Renewal or RI [Lamberto DINI]; merged with PPI and I Democratici to form La Margherita (or The Daisy Alliance); Italian Social Democrats or SDI [Enrico BOSELLI]; Lega Padana [Roberto BERNARDELLI]; National Alliance or AN [Gianfranco FINI]; Northern League or NL [Umberto BOSSI]; Per le Autonomie [leader NA]; Socialist Movement-Tricolor Flame or MS-Fiamma [Luca ROMAGNOLI]; South Tyrol People's Party or SVP (German speakers) [Elmar Pichler ROLLE]; Sunflower Alliance (includes Green Federation, Italian Social Democrats); The Daisy Alliance (includes Italian Popular Party, Italian Renewal, Union of Democrats for Europe, The Democrats) [Francesco RUTELLI]; The Democrats [Arturo PARISI]; The Radicals (formerly Pannella Reformers and Autonomous List) [Marco PANNELLA]; Union of Democrats for Europe or UDEUR [Clemente MASTELLA]; Union of Christian and Center Democrats or UDC [Marco FOLLINI]
Political pressure groups and leaders:Italian manufacturers and merchants associations (Confindustria, Confcommercio); organized farm groups (Confcoltivatori, Confagricoltura); Roman Catholic Church; three major trade union confederations (Confederazione Generale Italiana del Lavoro or CGIL [Guglielmo EPIFANI] which is left wing, Confederazione Italiana dei Sindacati Lavoratori or CISL [Savino PEZZOTTA], which is Roman Catholic centrist, and Unione Italiana del Lavoro or UIL [Luigi ANGELETTI] which is lay centrist)
International organization participation:AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CDB, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 7, G- 8, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMEE, UNMIK, UNMOGIP, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO, ZC
Flag description:three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and red; similar to the flag of Ireland, which is longer and is green (hoist side), white, and orange; also similar to the flag of the Cote d'Ivoire, which has the colors reversed - orange (hoist side), white, and green
note: inspired by the French flag brought to Italy by Napoleon in 1797

EconomyTop
Economy - overview:Italy has a diversified industrial economy with roughly the same total and per capita output as France and the UK. This capitalistic economy remains divided into a developed industrial north, dominated by private companies, and a less developed, welfare-dependent agricultural south, with 20% unemployment. Most raw materials needed by industry and more than 75% of energy requirements are imported. Over the past decade, Italy has pursued a tight fiscal policy in order to meet the requirements of the Economic and Monetary Unions and has benefited from lower interest and inflation rates. The current government has enacted numerous short-term reforms aimed at improving competitiveness and long-term growth. Italy has moved slowly, however, on implementing needed structural reforms, such as lightening the high tax burden and overhauling Italy's rigid labor market and over-generous pension system, because of the current economic slowdown and opposition from labor unions. But the leadership faces a severe economic constraint: the budget has breached the 3% EU deficit ceiling.
GDP:purchasing power parity - $1.609 trillion (2004 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:1.3% (2004 est.)
GDP - per capita:purchasing power parity - $27,700 (2004 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:agriculture: 2.3%
industry: 28.8%
services: 68.9% (2004 est.)

Labor force:24.27 million (2004 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:agriculture 5%, industry 32%, services 63% (2001)
Unemployment rate:8.6% (2004 est.)
Population below poverty line:NA
Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: 2.1%
highest 10%: 26.6% (2000)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:27.3 (1995)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):2.3% (2004 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):19.3% of GDP (2004 est.)
Budget:revenues: $768.9 billion
expenditures: $820.1 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

Public debt:105.6% of GDP (2004 est.)
Agriculture - products:fruits, vegetables, grapes, potatoes, sugar beets, soybeans, grain, olives; beef, dairy products; fish
Industries:tourism, machinery, iron and steel, chemicals, food processing, textiles, motor vehicles, clothing, footwear, ceramics
Industrial production growth rate:0.7% (2004 est.)
Electricity - production:261.6 billion kWh (2002)
Electricity - production by source:fossil fuel: 78.6%
hydro: 18.4%
nuclear: 0%
other: 3% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:293.9 billion kWh (2002)
Electricity - exports:900 million kWh (2002)
Electricity - imports:51.5 billion kWh (2002)
Oil - production:79,460 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:1.866 million bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:456,600 bbl/day (2001)
Oil - imports:2.158 million bbl/day (2001)
Oil - proved reserves:586.6 million bbl (1 January 2002)
Natural gas - production:15.49 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:71.18 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:61 million cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:54.78 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:209.7 billion cu m (1 January 2002)
Current account balance:$-21.1 billion (2004 est.)
Exports:$336.4 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Exports - commodities:engineering products, textiles and clothing, production machinery, motor vehicles, transport equipment, chemicals; food, beverages and tobacco; minerals and nonferrous metals
Exports - partners:Germany 13.7%, France 12.1%, US 8%, Spain 7.3%, UK 6.9%, Switzerland 4.1% (2004)
Imports:$329.3 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Imports - commodities:engineering products, chemicals, transport equipment, energy products, minerals and nonferrous metals, textiles and clothing; food, beverages and tobacco
Imports - partners:Germany 18.1%, France 10.7%, Netherlands 5.8%, Spain 4.7%, Belgium 4.4%, UK 4.3%, China 4.1% (2004)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:$61.5 billion (2004 est.)
Debt - external:$913.9 billion (2004 est.)
Economic aid - donor:ODA, $1 billion (2002 est.)
Currency (code):euro (EUR)
note: on 1 January 1999, the European Monetary Union introduced the euro as a common currency to be used by financial institutions of member countries; on 1 January 2002, the euro became the sole currency for everyday transactions within the member countries

Currency code:EUR
Exchange rates:euros per US dollar - 0.8054 (2004), 0.886 (2003), 1.0626 (2002), 1.1175 (2001), 1.0854 (2000)
Fiscal year:calendar year
CommunicationsTop
Telephones - main lines in use:26.596 million (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular:55.918 million (2003)
Telephone system:general assessment: modern, well developed, fast; fully automated telephone, telex, and data services
domestic: high-capacity cable and microwave radio relay trunks
international: country code - 39; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (with a total of 5 antennas - 3 for Atlantic Ocean and 2 for Indian Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region), and NA Eutelsat; 21 submarine cables

Radio broadcast stations:AM about 100, FM about 4,600, shortwave 9 (1998)
Radios:50.5 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations:358 (plus 4,728 repeaters) (1995)
Televisions:30.3 million (1997)
Internet country code:.it
Internet hosts:1,437,511 (2004)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):93 (Italy and Holy See) (2000)
Internet users:18.5 million (2003)
TransportationTop
Railways:total: 19,319 km (11,613 km electrified)
standard gauge: 18,001 km 1.435-m gauge (11,333 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 123 km 1.000-m gauge (122 km electrified); 1,195 km 0.950-m gauge (158 km electrified) (2004)

Highways:total: 479,688 km
paved: 479,688 km (including 6,621 km of expressways)
unpaved: 0 km (1999)

Waterways:2,400 km
note: used for commercial traffic; of limited overall value compared to road and rail (2004)

Pipelines:gas 17,335 km; oil 1,136 km (2004)
Ports and harbors:Augusta, Genoa, Livorno, Melilli Oil Terminal, Ravenna, Taranto, Trieste, Venice
Merchant marine:total: 565 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 8,970,017 GRT/10,354,685 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 38, cargo 43, chemical tanker 128, combination ore/oil 1, container 19, liquefied gas 38, livestock carrier 2, passenger 16, passenger/cargo 152, petroleum tanker 53, refrigerated cargo 4, roll on/roll off 34, specialized tanker 11, vehicle carrier 26
foreign-owned: 47 (France 3, Greece 7, Monaco 2, Switzerland 5, Taiwan 8, Turkey 2, United Kingdom 5, United States 15)
registered in other countries: 125 (2005)

Airports:134 (2004 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:total: 96
over 3,047 m: 6
2,438 to 3,047 m: 32
1,524 to 2,437 m: 16
914 to 1,523 m: 30
under 914 m: 12 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:total: 38
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 18
under 914 m: 18 (2004 est.)

Heliports:4 (2004 est.)
MilitaryTop
Military branches:Army (Esercito Italiano, EI), Navy (Marina Militare Italiana, MMI), Air Force (Aeronautica Militare Italiana, AMI), Carabinieri Corps (Corpo dei Carabinieri, CC) (2005)
Military manpower - military age and obligation:18 years of age (2004)
Military manpower - availability:males age 18-49: 13,491,260 (2005 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:males age 18-49: 10,963,513 (2005 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:males: 286,344 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:$28,182.8 million (2003)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:1.8% (2004)
Transnational IssuesTop
Disputes - international:Italy's long coastline and developed economy entices tens of thousands of illegal immigrants from southeastern Europe and northern Africa
Illicit drugs:important gateway for and consumer of Latin American cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin entering the European market; money laundering by organized crime and from smuggling



  Navigation
Trends
  Location
Tracking
  Visitor
Tracking
  Web
Browsers
[Help]
         
 
   featured site meter users
©2009 Site Meter      (0.34 s) 03  Privacy Statement    Contact

Site Meter