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Map of Norway
Background:Two centuries of Viking raids into Europe tapered off following the adoption of Christianity by King Olav TRYGGVASON in 994. Conversion of the Norwegian kingdom occurred over the next several decades. In 1397, Norway was absorbed into a union with Denmark that was to last for more than four centuries. In 1814, Norwegians resisted the cession of their country to Sweden and adopted a new constitution. Sweden then invaded Norway but agreed to let Norway keep its constitution in return for accepting the union under a Swedish king. Rising nationalism throughout the 19th century led to a 1905 referendum granting Norway independence. Although Norway remained neutral in World War I, it suffered heavy losses to its shipping. Norway proclaimed its neutrality at the outset of World War II, but was nonetheless occupied for five years by Nazi Germany (1940-45). In 1949, neutrality was abandoned and Norway became a member of NATO. Discovery of oil and gas in adjacent waters in the late 1960s boosted Norway's economic fortunes. The current focus is on containing spending on the extensive welfare system and planning for the time when petroleum reserves are depleted. In referenda held in 1972 and 1994, Norway rejected joining the EU.
Location:Northern Europe, bordering the North Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Sweden
Geographic coordinates:62 00 N, 10 00 E
Map references:Europe
Area:total: 324,220 sq km
land: 307,860 sq km
water: 16,360 sq km

Area - comparative:slightly larger than New Mexico
Land boundaries:total: 2,542 km
border countries: Finland 727 km, Sweden 1,619 km, Russia 196 km

Coastline:25,148 km (includes mainland 2,650 km, as well as long fjords, numerous small islands, and minor indentations 22,498 km; length of island coastlines 58,133 km)
Maritime claims:territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 10 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm

Climate:temperate along coast, modified by North Atlantic Current; colder interior with increased precipitation and colder summers; rainy year-round on west coast
Terrain:glaciated; mostly high plateaus and rugged mountains broken by fertile valleys; small, scattered plains; coastline deeply indented by fjords; arctic tundra in north
Elevation extremes:lowest point: Norwegian Sea 0 m
highest point: Galdhopiggen 2,469 m

Natural resources:petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, titanium, pyrites, nickel, fish, timber, hydropower
Land use:arable land: 2.87%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 97.13% (2001)

Irrigated land:1,270 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:rockslides, avalanches
Environment - current issues:water pollution; acid rain damaging forests and adversely affecting lakes, threatening fish stocks; air pollution from vehicle emissions
Environment - international agreements:party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:about two-thirds mountains; some 50,000 islands off its much indented coastline; strategic location adjacent to sea lanes and air routes in North Atlantic; one of most rugged and longest coastlines in world
Population:4,593,041 (July 2005 est.)
Age structure:0-14 years: 19.5% (male 459,418/female 437,734)
15-64 years: 65.7% (male 1,531,249/female 1,484,656)
65 years and over: 14.8% (male 286,343/female 393,641) (2005 est.)

Median age:total: 38.17 years
male: 37.29 years
female: 39.07 years (2005 est.)

Population growth rate:0.4% (2005 est.)
Birth rate:11.67 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Death rate:9.45 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Net migration rate:1.73 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2005 est.)

Infant mortality rate:total: 3.7 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 4.07 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.32 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:total population: 79.4 years
male: 76.78 years
female: 82.17 years (2005 est.)

Total fertility rate:1.78 children born/woman (2005 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:2,100 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:less than 100 (2003 est.)
Nationality:noun: Norwegian(s)
adjective: Norwegian

Ethnic groups:Norwegian, Sami 20,000
Religions:Church of Norway 85.7%, Pentecostal 1%, Roman Catholic 1%, other Christian 2.4%, Muslim 1.8%, other 8.1% (2004)
Languages:Bokmal Norwegian (official), Nynorsk Norwegian (official), small Sami- and Finnish-speaking minorities
Literacy:definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 100%
male: 100%
female: 100%

Country name:conventional long form: Kingdom of Norway
conventional short form: Norway
local long form: Kongeriket Norge
local short form: Norge

Government type:constitutional monarchy
Administrative divisions:19 counties (fylker, singular - fylke); Akershus, Aust-Agder, Buskerud, Finnmark, Hedmark, Hordaland, More og Romsdal, Nordland, Nord-Trondelag, Oppland, Oslo, Ostfold, Rogaland, Sogn og Fjordane, Sor-Trondelag, Telemark, Troms, Vest-Agder, Vestfold
Dependent areas:Bouvet Island, Jan Mayen, Svalbard
Independence:7 June 1905 (Norway declared the union with Sweden dissolved); 26 October 1905 (Sweden agreed to the repeal of the union)
National holiday:Constitution Day, 17 May (1814)
Constitution:17 May 1814, amended many times
Legal system:mixture of customary law, civil law system, and common law traditions; Supreme Court renders advisory opinions to legislature when asked; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage:18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:chief of state: King HARALD V (since 17 January 1991); Heir Apparent Crown Prince HAAKON MAGNUS, son of the monarch (born 20 July 1973)
head of government: Prime Minister Kjell Magne BONDEVIK (since 19 October 2001)
cabinet: State Council appointed by the monarch with the approval of parliament
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; following parliamentary elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the monarch with the approval of the parliament

Legislative branch:modified unicameral Parliament or Storting (165 seats; members are elected by popular vote by proportional representation to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 10 September 2001 (next to be held September 2005)
election results: percent of vote by party - Labor Party 24.3%, Conservative Party 21.2%, Progress Party 14.6%, Socialist Left Party 12.5%, Christian People's Party 12.4%, Center Party 5.6%, Liberal Party 3.9%, Coastal Party 1.7%, other 3.8%; seats by party - Labor Party 43, Conservative Party 38, Progress Party 26, Socialist Left Party 23, Christian People's Party 22, Center Party 10, Liberal Party 2, Coastal Party 1
note: for certain purposes, the parliament divides itself into two chambers and elects one-fourth of its membership to an upper house or Lagting

Judicial branch:Supreme Court or Hoyesterett (justices appointed by the monarch)
Political parties and leaders:Center Party [Aslaug Marie HAGA]; Christian People's Party [Dagfinn HOYBRATEN]; Coastal Party [Roy WAAGE]; Conservative Party [Erna SOLBERG]; Labor Party [Jens STOLTENBERG]; Liberal Party [Lars SPONHEIM]; Progress Party [Carl I. HAGEN]; Socialist Left Party [Kristin HALVORSEN]
Political pressure groups and leaders:NA
International organization participation:AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EFTA, ESA, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MIGA, NAM (guest), NATO, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMIK, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WEU (associate), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Flag description:red with a blue cross outlined in white that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)
Economy - overview:The Norwegian economy is a prosperous bastion of welfare capitalism, featuring a combination of free market activity and government intervention. The government controls key areas, such as the vital petroleum sector (through large-scale state enterprises). The country is richly endowed with natural resources - petroleum, hydropower, fish, forests, and minerals - and is highly dependent on its oil production and international oil prices, with oil and gas accounting for one-third of exports. Only Saudi Arabia and Russia export more oil than Norway. Norway opted to stay out of the EU during a referendum in November 1994; nonetheless, it contributes sizably to the EU budget. The government has moved ahead with privatization. With arguably the highest quality of life worldwide, Norwegians still worry about that time in the next two decades when the oil and gas will begin to run out. Accordingly, Norway has been saving its oil-boosted budget surpluses in a Government Petroleum Fund, which is invested abroad and now is valued at more than $150 billion. After lackluster growth of 1% in 2002 and 0.5% in 2003, GDP growth picked up to 3.3% in 2004.
GDP:purchasing power parity - $183 billion (2004 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:3.3% (2004 est.)
GDP - per capita:purchasing power parity - $40,000 (2004 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:agriculture: 2.2%
industry: 36.3%
services: 61.6% (2004 est.)

Labor force:2.38 million (2004 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:agriculture, forestry, and fishing 4%, industry 22%, services 74% (1995)
Unemployment rate:4.3% (2004 est.)
Population below poverty line:NA
Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: 4.1%
highest 10%: 21.8% (1995)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:25.8 (1995)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):1% (2004 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):17.5% of GDP (2004 est.)
Budget:revenues: $134 billion
expenditures: $116.8 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

Public debt:33.1% of GDP (2004 est.)
Agriculture - products:barley, wheat, potatoes; pork, beef, veal, milk; fish
Industries:petroleum and gas, food processing, shipbuilding, pulp and paper products, metals, chemicals, timber, mining, textiles, fishing
Industrial production growth rate:5.2% (2004 est.)
Electricity - production:125.9 billion kWh (2002)
Electricity - production by source:fossil fuel: 0.4%
hydro: 99.3%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0.4% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:107.4 billion kWh (2002)
Electricity - exports:15 billion kWh (2002)
Electricity - imports:5.3 billion kWh (2002)
Oil - production:3.31 million bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil - consumption:171,100 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:3.466 million bbl/day (2001)
Oil - imports:88,870 bbl/day (2001)
Oil - proved reserves:9.859 billion bbl (1 January 2002)
Natural gas - production:54.6 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:4.1 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:50.5 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:1.716 trillion cu m (1 January 2002)
Current account balance:$30.52 billion (2004 est.)
Exports:$76.64 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Exports - commodities:petroleum and petroleum products, machinery and equipment, metals, chemicals, ships, fish
Exports - partners:UK 22.4%, Germany 12.9%, Netherlands 9.9%, France 9.6%, US 8.4%, Sweden 6.7% (2004)
Imports:$45.96 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Imports - commodities:machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals, foodstuffs
Imports - partners:Sweden 15.7%, Germany 13.6%, Denmark 7.3%, UK 6.5%, China 5%, US 4.9%, Netherlands 4.4%, France 4.3%, Finland 4.1% (2004)
Debt - external:$0 (Norway is a net external creditor) (2003 est.)
Economic aid - donor:ODA, $1.4 billion (1998)
Currency (code):Norwegian krone (NOK)
Currency code:NOK
Exchange rates:Norwegian kroner per US dollar - 6.7408 (2004), 7.0802 (2003), 7.9838 (2002), 8.9917 (2001), 8.8018 (2000)
Fiscal year:calendar year
Telephones - main lines in use:3.343 million (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular:4,163,400 (2003)
Telephone system:general assessment: modern in all respects; one of the most advanced telecommunications networks in Europe
domestic: Norway has a domestic satellite system; moreover, the prevalence of rural areas encourages the wide use of cellular mobile systems instead of fixed-wire systems
international: country code - 47; 2 buried coaxial cable systems; 4 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations - NA Eutelsat, NA Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Norway shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Sweden) (1999)

Radio broadcast stations:AM 5, FM at least 650, shortwave 1 (1998)
Radios:4.03 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations:360 (plus 2,729 repeaters) (1995)
Televisions:2.03 million (1997)
Internet country
Internet hosts:593,850 (2004)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):13 (2000)
Internet users:2.288 million (2002)
Railways:total: 4,077 km
standard gauge: 4,077 km 1.435-m gauge (2,518 km electrified) (2004)

Highways:total: 91,852 km
paved: 71,185 km (including 178 km of expressways)
unpaved: 20,667 km (2002)

Pipelines:condensate 411 km; gas 6,199 km; oil 2,213 km; oil/gas/water 746 km; unknown (oil/water) 38 km (2004)
Ports and harbors:Bergen, Drammen, Floro, Hammerfest, Harstad, Haugesund, Kristiansand, Larvik, Narvik, Oslo, Porsgrunn, Stavanger, Tromso, Trondheim
Merchant marine:total: 740 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 18,820,495 GRT/27,449,456 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 51, cargo 168, chemical tanker 142, combination ore/oil 20, container 3, liquefied gas 81, passenger 5, passenger/cargo 113, petroleum tanker 79, refrigerated cargo 6, roll on/roll off 30, vehicle carrier 42
foreign-owned: 174 (Belgium 1, China 3, Cyprus 5, Denmark 28, Estonia 2, Finland 5, Germany 4, Hong Kong 52, Iceland 3, Italy 3, Japan 3, Lithuania 1, Monaco 1, Netherlands 4, Poland 2, Saudi Arabia 7, Singapore 10, Sweden 24, United States 16)
registered in other countries: 1,117 (2005)

Airports:101 (2004 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:total: 65
2,438 to 3,047 m: 13
1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
914 to 1,523 m: 14
under 914 m: 26 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:total: 36
914 to 1,523 m: 7
under 914 m: 29 (2004 est.)

Heliports:1 (2004 est.)
Military branches:Norwegian Army, Royal Norwegian Navy (includes Coastal Rangers and Coast Guard (Kystvakt)), Royal Norwegian Air Force (Kongelige Norske Luftforsvaret, RNoAF), Home Guard
Military manpower - military age and obligation:18 years of age for compulsory military service; 16 years of age in wartime; 17 years of age for male volunteers; 18 years of age for women; 16 years of age for volunteers to the Home Guard; conscript service obligation - 12 months (2004)
Military manpower - availability:males age 18-49: 1,014,592 (2005 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:males age 18-49: 827,016 (2005 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:males: 29,179 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:$4,033.5 million (2003)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:1.9% (2003)
Transnational IssuesTop
Disputes - international:Norway asserts a territorial claim in Antarctica (Queen Maud Land and its continental shelf); despite recent discussions, Russia and Norway continue to dispute their maritime limits in the Barents Sea and Russia's fishing rights beyond Svalbard's territorial limits within the Svalbard Treaty zone

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