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The Pathfinder
By Entry Pages > Visit Detail > Country Facts for Tanzania, United Republic of
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Introduction Geography People Government Economy Communications Transportation Military Transnational Issues
Map of Tanzania, United Republic of
IntroductionTop
Background:Shortly after independence, Tanganyika and Zanzibar merged to form the nation of Tanzania in 1964. One-party rule came to an end in 1995 with the first democratic elections held in the country since the 1970s. Zanzibar's semi-autonomous status and popular opposition have led to two contentious elections since 1995, which the ruling party won despite international observers' claims of voting irregularities.
GeographyTop
Location:Eastern Africa, bordering the Indian Ocean, between Kenya and Mozambique
Geographic coordinates:6 00 S, 35 00 E
Map references:Africa
Area:total: 945,087 sq km
land: 886,037 sq km
water: 59,050 sq km
note: includes the islands of Mafia, Pemba, and Zanzibar

Area - comparative:slightly larger than twice the size of California
Land boundaries:total: 3,861 km
border countries: Burundi 451 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 459 km, Kenya 769 km, Malawi 475 km, Mozambique 756 km, Rwanda 217 km, Uganda 396 km, Zambia 338 km

Coastline:1,424 km
Maritime claims:territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate:varies from tropical along coast to temperate in highlands
Terrain:plains along coast; central plateau; highlands in north, south
Elevation extremes:lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Kilimanjaro 5,895 m

Natural resources:hydropower, tin, phosphates, iron ore, coal, diamonds, gemstones, gold, natural gas, nickel
Land use:arable land: 4.52%
permanent crops: 1.08%
other: 94.4% (2001)

Irrigated land:1,550 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:flooding on the central plateau during the rainy season; drought
Environment - current issues:soil degradation; deforestation; desertification; destruction of coral reefs threatens marine habitats; recent droughts affected marginal agriculture; wildlife threatened by illegal hunting and trade, especially for ivory
Environment - international agreements:party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:Kilimanjaro is highest point in Africa; bordered by three of the largest lakes on the continent: Lake Victoria (the world's second-largest freshwater lake) in the north, Lake Tanganyika (the world's second deepest) in the west, and Lake Nyasa in the southwest
PeopleTop
Population:36,766,356
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2005 est.)

Age structure:0-14 years: 44% (male 8,100,216/female 8,074,171)
15-64 years: 53.4% (male 9,665,957/female 9,963,772)
65 years and over: 2.6% (male 418,080/female 544,160) (2005 est.)

Median age:total: 17.62 years
male: 17.36 years
female: 17.89 years (2005 est.)

Population growth rate:1.83% (2005 est.)
Birth rate:38.16 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Death rate:16.71 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Net migration rate:-3.11 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Sex ratio:at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2005 est.)

Infant mortality rate:total: 98.54 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 107.85 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 88.95 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:total population: 45.24 years
male: 44.56 years
female: 45.94 years (2005 est.)

Total fertility rate:5.06 children born/woman (2005 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:8.8% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:1.6 million (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:160,000 (2003 est.)
Nationality:noun: Tanzanian(s)
adjective: Tanzanian

Ethnic groups:mainland - native African 99% (of which 95% are Bantu consisting of more than 130 tribes), other 1% (consisting of Asian, European, and Arab); Zanzibar - Arab, native African, mixed Arab and native African
Religions:mainland - Christian 30%, Muslim 35%, indigenous beliefs 35%; Zanzibar - more than 99% Muslim
Languages:Kiswahili or Swahili (official), Kiunguja (name for Swahili in Zanzibar), English (official, primary language of commerce, administration, and higher education), Arabic (widely spoken in Zanzibar), many local languages
note: Kiswahili (Swahili) is the mother tongue of the Bantu people living in Zanzibar and nearby coastal Tanzania; although Kiswahili is Bantu in structure and origin, its vocabulary draws on a variety of sources, including Arabic and English, and it has become the lingua franca of central and eastern Africa; the first language of most people is one of the local languages

Literacy:definition: age 15 and over can read and write Kiswahili (Swahili), English, or Arabic
total population: 78.2%
male: 85.9%
female: 70.7% (2003 est.)

GovernmentTop
Country name:conventional long form: United Republic of Tanzania
conventional short form: Tanzania
former: United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar

Government type:republic
Capital:Dar es Salaam; note - legislative offices have been transferred to Dodoma, which is planned as the new national capital; the National Assembly now meets there on regular basis
Administrative divisions:26 regions; Arusha, Dar es Salaam, Dodoma, Iringa, Kagera, Kigoma, Kilimanjaro, Lindi, Manyara, Mara, Mbeya, Morogoro, Mtwara, Mwanza, Pemba North, Pemba South, Pwani, Rukwa, Ruvuma, Shinyanga, Singida, Tabora, Tanga, Zanzibar Central/South, Zanzibar North, Zanzibar Urban/West
Independence:26 April 1964; Tanganyika became independent 9 December 1961 (from UK-administered UN trusteeship); Zanzibar became independent 19 December 1963 (from UK); Tanganyika united with Zanzibar 26 April 1964 to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar; renamed United Republic of Tanzania 29 October 1964
National holiday:Union Day (Tanganyika and Zanzibar), 26 April (1964)
Constitution:25 April 1977; major revisions October 1984
Legal system:based on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts limited to matters of interpretation; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:chief of state: President Benjamin William MKAPA (since 23 November 1995); Vice President Dr. Ali Mohammed SHEIN (since 5 July 2001); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Benjamin William MKAPA (since 23 November 1995); Vice President Dr. Ali Mohammed SHEIN (since 5 July 2001); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
note: Zanzibar elects a president who is head of government for matters internal to Zanzibar; Amani Abeid KARUME was elected to that office on 29 October 2000
cabinet: Cabinet ministers, including the prime minister, are appointed by the president from among the members of the National Assembly
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ballot by popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 29 October 2000 (next to be held 30 October 2005); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Benjamin William MKAPA reelected president; percent of vote - Benjamin William MKAPA 71.7%, Ibrahim Haruna LIPUMBA 16.3%, Augustine Lyatonga MREME 7.8%, John Momose CHEYO 4.2%

Legislative branch:unicameral National Assembly or Bunge (274 seats - 232 elected by popular vote, 37 allocated to women nominated by the president, five to members of the Zanzibar House of Representatives; members serve five-year terms); note - in addition to enacting laws that apply to the entire United Republic of Tanzania, the Assembly enacts laws that apply only to the mainland; Zanzibar has its own House of Representatives to make laws especially for Zanzibar (the Zanzibar House of Representatives has 50 seats, directly elected by universal suffrage to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 29 October 2000 (next to be held 30 October 2005)
election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - CCM 244, CUF 16, CHADEMA 4, TLP 3, UDP 2, Zanzibar representatives 5; Zanzibar House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - CCM 34, CUF 16

Judicial branch:Permanent Commission of Enquiry (official ombudsman); Court of Appeal (consists of a chief justice and four judges); High Court (consists of a Jaji Kiongozi and 29 judges appointed by the president; holds regular sessions in all regions); District Courts; Primary Courts (limited jurisdiction and appeals can be made to the higher courts)
Political parties and leaders:Chama Cha Demokrasia na Maendeleo (Party of Democracy and Development) or CHADEMA [Bob MAKANI]; Chama Cha Mapinduzi or CCM (Revolutionary Party) [Benjamin William MKAPA]; Civic United Front or CUF [Ibrahim LIPUMBA]; Democratic Party (unregistered) [Christopher MTIKLA]; Tanzania Labor Party or TLP [Augustine Lyatonga MREME]; United Democratic Party or UDP [John CHEYO]
Political pressure groups and leaders:NA
International organization participation:ACP, AfDB, AU, C, EADB, FAO, G- 6, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OPCW, SADC, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMEE, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Flag description:divided diagonally by a yellow-edged black band from the lower hoist-side corner; the upper triangle (hoist side) is green and the lower triangle is blue
EconomyTop
Economy - overview:Tanzania is one of the poorest countries in the world. The economy depends heavily on agriculture, which accounts for almost half of GDP, provides 85% of exports, and employs 80% of the work force. Topography and climatic conditions, however, limit cultivated crops to only 4% of the land area. Industry traditionally featured the processing of agricultural products and light consumer goods. The World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and bilateral donors have provided funds to rehabilitate Tanzania's out-of-date economic infrastructure and to alleviate poverty. Growth in 1991-2002 featured a pickup in industrial production and a substantial increase in output of minerals, led by gold. Recent banking reforms have helped increase private sector growth and investment. Continued donor assistance and solid macroeconomic policies supported real GDP growth of nearly 6% in 2004.
GDP:purchasing power parity - $23.71 billion (2004 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:5.8% (2004 est.)
GDP - per capita:purchasing power parity - $700 (2004 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:agriculture: 43.2%
industry: 17.2%
services: 39.6% (2004 est.)

Labor force:19 million (2004 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:agriculture 80%, industry and services 20% (2002 est.)
Unemployment rate:NA
Population below poverty line:36% (2002 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: 2.8%
highest 10%: 30.1% (1993)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:38.2 (1993)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):5.4% (2004 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):16.2% of GDP (2004 est.)
Budget:revenues: $1.985 billion
expenditures: $2.074 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

Public debt:5% of GDP (2004 est.)
Agriculture - products:coffee, sisal, tea, cotton, pyrethrum (insecticide made from chrysanthemums), cashew nuts, tobacco, cloves, corn, wheat, cassava (tapioca), bananas, fruits, vegetables; cattle, sheep, goats
Industries:agricultural processing (sugar, beer, cigarettes, sisal twine), diamond, gold and iron mining, soda ash, oil refining, shoes, cement, apparel, wood products, fertilizer, salt
Industrial production growth rate:8.4% (1999 est.)
Electricity - production:2.727 billion kWh (2002)
Electricity - production by source:fossil fuel: 18.9%
hydro: 81.1%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:2.566 billion kWh (2002)
Electricity - exports:0 kWh (2002)
Electricity - imports:30 million kWh (2002)
Oil - production:0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:17,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:NA
Oil - imports:NA
Oil - proved reserves:0 bbl (1 January 2002)
Natural gas - proved reserves:11.33 billion cu m (1 January 2002)
Current account balance:$-327.4 million (2004 est.)
Exports:$1.248 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Exports - commodities:gold, coffee, cashew nuts, manufactures, cotton
Exports - partners:India 10.2%, Netherlands 6.8%, Japan 6.1%, UK 5.3%, China 5.2%, Kenya 4.8%, Germany 4.4% (2004)
Imports:$1.972 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Imports - commodities:consumer goods, machinery and transportation equipment, industrial raw materials, crude oil
Imports - partners:South Africa 13.1%, China 8.8%, India 6.6%, Zambia 5.4%, UAE 5.4%, US 4.8%, UK 4.8%, Kenya 4.3% (2004)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:$2.175 billion (2004 est.)
Debt - external:$7.321 billion (2004 est.)
Currency (code):Tanzanian shilling (TZS)
Currency code:TZS
Exchange rates:Tanzanian shillings per US dollar - 1,089.33 (2004), 1,038.42 (2003), 966.58 (2002), 876.41 (2001), 800.41 (2000)
Fiscal year:1 July - 30 June
CommunicationsTop
Telephones - main lines in use:149,100 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular:891,200 (2003)
Telephone system:general assessment: fair system operating below capacity and being modernized for better service; VSAT (very small aperture terminal) system under construction
domestic: trunk service provided by open-wire, microwave radio relay, tropospheric scatter, and fiber-optic cable; some links being made digital
international: country code - 255; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:AM 12, FM 11, shortwave 2 (1998)
Radios:8.8 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations:3 (1999)
Televisions:103,000 (1997)
Internet country code:.tz
Internet hosts:5,534 (2003)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):6 (2000)
Internet users:250,000 (2003)
TransportationTop
Railways:total: 3,690 km
narrow gauge: 969 km 1.067-m gauge; 2,721 km 1.000-m gauge (2004)

Highways:total: 88,200 km
paved: 3,704 km
unpaved: 84,496 km (1999 est.)

Waterways:Lake Tanganyika, Lake Victoria, and Lake Nyasa principal avenues of commerce with neighboring countries; rivers not navigable (2004)
Pipelines:gas 29 km; oil 866 km (2004)
Ports and harbors:Bukoba, Dar es Salaam, Kigoma, Kilwa Masoko, Lindi, Mtwara, Mwanza, Pangani, Tanga, Wete, Zanzibar
Merchant marine:total: 11 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 25,481 GRT/31,011 DWT
by type: cargo 2, passenger/cargo 5, petroleum tanker 4
registered in other countries: 1 (2005)

Airports:123 (2004 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:total: 11
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:total: 112
1,524 to 2,437 m: 19
914 to 1,523 m: 60
under 914 m: 33 (2004 est.)

MilitaryTop
Military branches:Tanzanian People's Defense Force (JWTZ): Army, Naval Wing, Air Defense Command (includes Air Wing), National Service
Military manpower - military age and obligation:15 years of age for voluntary military service; 18 years of age for compulsory military service upon graduation from secondary school; conscript service obligation - 2 years (2004)
Military manpower - availability:males age 18-49: 7,422,869 (2005 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:males age 18-49: 3,879,630 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:$20.6 million (2004)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:0.2% (2004)
Transnational IssuesTop
Disputes - international:disputes with Malawi over the boundary in Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) and the meandering Songwe River remain dormant
Refugees and internally displaced persons::refugees (country of origin): 447,877 (Burundi) 153,155 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) 3,036 (Somalia) (2004)
Illicit drugs:growing role in transshipment of southwest and southeast Asian heroin and south American cocaine destined for south African, European, and US markets and of south Asian methaqualone bound for southern Africa; money laundering remains a problem



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