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Map of Indonesia
IntroductionTop
Background:The Dutch began to colonize Indonesia in the early 17th century; the islands were occupied by Japan from 1942 to 1945. Indonesia declared its independence after Japan's surrender, but it required four years of intermittent negotiations, recurring hostilities, and UN mediation before the Netherlands agreed to relinquish its colony. Indonesia is the world's largest archipelagic state. Current issues include: alleviating widespread poverty, preventing terrorism, continuing the transition to popularly-elected governments after four decades of authoritarianism, implementing reforms of the banking sector, addressing charges of cronyism and corruption, holding the military and police accountable for human rights violations, and resolving armed separatist movements in Aceh and Papua.
GeographyTop
Location:Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean
Geographic coordinates:5 00 S, 120 00 E
Map references:Southeast Asia
Area:total: 1,919,440 sq km
land: 1,826,440 sq km
water: 93,000 sq km

Area - comparative:slightly less than three times the size of Texas
Land boundaries:total: 2,830 km
border countries: East Timor 228 km, Malaysia 1,782 km, Papua New Guinea 820 km

Coastline:54,716 km
Maritime claims:measured from claimed archipelagic straight baselines
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate:tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands
Terrain:mostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior mountains
Elevation extremes:lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Puncak Jaya 5,030 m

Natural resources:petroleum, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver
Land use:arable land: 11.32%
permanent crops: 7.23%
other: 81.45% (2001)

Irrigated land:48,150 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:occasional floods, severe droughts, tsunamis, earthquakes, volcanoes, forest fires
Environment - current issues:deforestation; water pollution from industrial wastes, sewage; air pollution in urban areas; smoke and haze from forest fires
Environment - international agreements:party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note:archipelago of 17,508 islands (6,000 inhabited); straddles equator; strategic location astride or along major sea lanes from Indian Ocean to Pacific Ocean
PeopleTop
Population:241,973,879 (July 2005 est.)
Age structure:0-14 years: 29.1% (male 35,823,456/female 34,590,631)
15-64 years: 65.7% (male 79,447,560/female 79,449,399)
65 years and over: 5.2% (male 5,526,389/female 7,136,444) (2005 est.)

Median age:total: 26.48 years
male: 26.03 years
female: 26.93 years (2005 est.)

Population growth rate:1.45% (2005 est.)
Birth rate:20.71 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Death rate:6.25 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Net migration rate:0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2005 est.)

Infant mortality rate:total: 35.6 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 40.72 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 30.22 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:total population: 69.57 years
male: 67.13 years
female: 72.13 years (2005 est.)

Total fertility rate:2.44 children born/woman (2005 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:0.1% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:110,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:2,400 (2003 est.)
Nationality:noun: Indonesian(s)
adjective: Indonesian

Ethnic groups:Javanese 45%, Sundanese 14%, Madurese 7.5%, coastal Malays 7.5%, other 26%
Religions:Muslim 88%, Protestant 5%, Roman Catholic 3%, Hindu 2%, Buddhist 1%, other 1% (1998)
Languages:Bahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay), English, Dutch, local dialects, the most widely spoken of which is Javanese
Literacy:definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 87.9%
male: 92.5%
female: 83.4% (2002)

GovernmentTop
Country name:conventional long form: Republic of Indonesia
conventional short form: Indonesia
local long form: Republik Indonesia
local short form: Indonesia
former: Netherlands East Indies; Dutch East Indies

Government type:republic
Capital:Jakarta
Administrative divisions:30 provinces (propinsi-propinsi, singular - propinsi), 2 special regions* (daerah-daerah istimewa, singular - daerah istimewa), and 1 special capital city district** (daerah khusus ibukota); Aceh*, Bali, Banten, Bengkulu, Gorontalo, Irian Jaya Barat, Jakarta Raya**, Jambi, Jawa Barat, Jawa Tengah, Jawa Timur, Kalimantan Barat, Kalimantan Selatan, Kalimantan Tengah, Kalimantan Timur, Kepulauan Bangka Belitung, Kepulauan Riau, Lampung, Maluku, Maluku Utara, Nusa Tenggara Barat, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Papua, Riau, Sulawesi Barat, Sulawesi Selatan, Sulawesi Tengah, Sulawesi Tenggara, Sulawesi Utara, Sumatera Barat, Sumatera Selatan, Sumatera Utara, Yogyakarta*; note - with the implementation of decentralization on 1 January 2001, the 357 districts or regencies became the key administrative units responsible for providing most government services
Independence:17 August 1945 (independence proclaimed); 27 December 1949 (Netherlands recognizes Indonesian independence)
National holiday:Independence Day, 17 August (1945)
Constitution:August 1945, abrogated by Federal Constitution of 1949 and Provisional Constitution of 1950, restored 5 July 1959
Legal system:based on Roman-Dutch law, substantially modified by indigenous concepts and by new criminal procedures and election codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:17 years of age; universal and married persons regardless of age
Executive branch:chief of state: President Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO (since 20 October 2004) and Vice President Muhammad Yusuf KALLA (since 20 October 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO (since 20 October 2004) and Vice President Muhammad Yusuf KALLA (since 20 October 2004);
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president and vice president were elected for five-year terms by direct vote of the citizenry; last held 20 September 2004 (next to be held in September 2009)
election results: Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO elected president receiving 60.6% of vote; MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri received 39.4%

Legislative branch:unicameral House of Representatives or Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (DPR) (550 seats; members elected to serve five-year terms); House of Regional Representatives (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah or DPD), constitutionally mandated role includes providing legislative input to DPR on issues affecting regions; People's Consultative Assembly (Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat or MPR) has role in inaugurating and impeaching President and in amending constitution; consists of popularly-elected members in DPR and DPD; MPR does not formulate national policy
elections: last held 5 April 2004 (next to be held in April 2009)
election results: percent of vote by party - Golkar 21.6%, PDI-P 18.5%, PKB 10.6%, PPP 8.2%, PD 7.5%, PKS 7.3%, PAN 6.4%, others 19.9%; seats by party - Golkar 128, PDI-P 109, PPP 58, PD 55, PAN 53, PKB 52, PKS 45, others 50
note: because of election rules, the number of seats won does not always follow the number of votes received by parties

Judicial branch:Supreme Court or Mahkamah Agung (justices appointed by the president from a list of candidates approved by the legislature); a separate Constitutional Court or Makhama Konstitusi was invested by the president on 16 August 2003; in March 2004 the Supreme Court assumed administrative and financial responsibility for the lower court system from the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights
Political parties and leaders:Crescent Moon and Star Party or PBB [Yusril Ihza MAHENDRA, chairman]; Democratic Party or PD [Subur BUDHISANTOSO, chairman]; Functional Groups Party or Golkar [Yusuf KALLA, chairman]; Indonesia Democratic Party-Struggle or PDI-P [MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri, chairperson]; National Awakening Party or PKB [Alwi SHIHAB, chairman]; National Mandate Party or PAN [Amien RAIS, chairman]; Prosperous Justice Party or PKS [MAHFUD, acting chairman]; United Development Party or PPP [Hamzah HAZ, chairman]
Political pressure groups and leaders:NA
International organization participation:APEC, APT, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN, BIS, CP, FAO, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, MIGA, MONUC, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OPEC, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNOMIG, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Flag description:two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; similar to the flag of Monaco, which is shorter; also similar to the flag of Poland, which is white (top) and red
EconomyTop
Economy - overview:Indonesia, a vast polyglot nation, has restored financial stability and pursued sober fiscal policies since the Asian financial crisis, but many economic development problems remain, including high unemployment, a fragile banking sector, endemic corruption, inadequate infrastructure, a poor investment climate, and unequal resource distribution among regions. Indonesia became a net oil importer in 2004 due to declining production and lack of new exploration investment. As a result, Jakarta is not reaping the benefits of high world oil prices, and the cost of subsidizing domestic fuel prices has placed an increasing strain on the budget. Keys to future growth remain internal reform, building up the confidence of international and domestic investors, and strong global economic growth. In late December 2004, a major tsunami took over 237,000 lives in Indonesia and caused massive destruction of property.
GDP:purchasing power parity - $827.4 billion (2004 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:4.9% (2004 est.)
GDP - per capita:purchasing power parity - $3,500 (2004 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:agriculture: 14.6%
industry: 45%
services: 40.4% (2004 est.)

Labor force:111.5 million (2004 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:agriculture 45%, industry 16%, services 39% (1999 est.)
Unemployment rate:9.2% (2004 est.)
Population below poverty line:27% (1999)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: 4%
highest 10%: 26.7% (1999)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:37 (2001)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):6.1% (2004 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):16.6% of GDP (2004 est.)
Budget:revenues: $52.13 billion
expenditures: $55.88 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)

Public debt:56.2% of GDP (2004 est.)
Agriculture - products:rice, cassava (tapioca), peanuts, rubber, cocoa, coffee, palm oil, copra, poultry, beef, pork, eggs
Industries:petroleum and natural gas, textiles, apparel, footwear, mining, cement, chemical fertilizers, plywood, rubber, food, tourism
Industrial production growth rate:10.5% (2004 est.)
Electricity - production:110.2 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - production by source:fossil fuel: 86.9%
hydro: 10.5%
nuclear: 0%
other: 2.6% (2001)

Electricity - consumption:92.35 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports:0 kWh (2002)
Electricity - imports:0 kWh (2002)
Oil - production:971,000 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - consumption:1.183 million bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - exports:518,100 bbl/day (2003)
Oil - imports:370,500 bbl/day (2003)
Oil - proved reserves:4.9 billion bbl (2004 est.)
Natural gas - production:77.6 billion cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:55.3 billion cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - exports:39.7 billion cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - imports:0 cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:2.549 trillion cu m (2004)
Current account balance:$7.338 billion (2004 est.)
Exports:$69.86 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Exports - commodities:oil and gas, electrical appliances, plywood, textiles, rubber
Exports - partners:Japan 21.8%, US 13.5%, China 7.5%, Singapore 7.4%, South Korea 5.9%, Malaysia 4.9% (2004)
Imports:$45.07 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Imports - commodities:machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs
Imports - partners:Japan 19.3%, China 11%, Singapore 9.2%, Thailand 6.8%, Malaysia 6.5%, US 5.7%, Australia 5%, Germany 4.2% (2004)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:$35.82 billion (2004 est.)
Debt - external:$141.5 billion (2004 est.)
Currency (code):Indonesian rupiah (IDR)
Currency code:IDR
Exchange rates:Indonesian rupiahs per US dollar - 8,938.9 (2004), 8,577.1 (2003), 9,311.2 (2002), 10,260.8 (2001), 8,421.8 (2000)
Fiscal year:calendar year; note - previously was 1 April - 31 March, but starting with 2001, has been changed to calendar year
CommunicationsTop
Telephones - main lines in use:7.75 million (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular:11.7 million (2002)
Telephone system:general assessment: domestic service fair, international service good
domestic: interisland microwave system and HF radio police net; domestic satellite communications system
international: country code - 62; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:AM 678, FM 43, shortwave 82 (1998)
Radios:31.5 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations:41 (1999)
Televisions:13.75 million (1997)
Internet country code:.id
Internet hosts:62,036 (2003)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):24 (2000)
Internet users:8 million (2002)
TransportationTop
Railways:total: 6,458 km
narrow gauge: 5,961 km 1.067-m gauge (125 km electrified); 497 km 0.750-m gauge (2004)

Highways:total: 342,700 km
paved: 158,670 km
unpaved: 184,030 km (1999 est.)

Waterways:21,579 km
note: Sumatra 5,471 km, Java and Madura 820 km, Kalimantan 10,460 km, Sulawesi (Celebes) 241 km, Irian Jaya 4,587 km (2004)

Pipelines:condensate 850 km; condensate/gas 128 km; gas 8,506 km; oil 7,472 km; oil/gas/water 66 km; refined products 1,329 km (2004)
Ports and harbors:Banjarmasin, Belawan, Ciwandan, Krueg Geukueh, Palembang, Panjang, Sungai Pakning, Tanjung Perak, Tanjung Priok
Merchant marine:total: 728 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 3,192,847 GRT/4,319,739 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 35, cargo 409, chemical tanker 19, container 36, liquefied gas 7, livestock carrier 1, passenger 41, passenger/cargo 36, petroleum tanker 125, refrigerated cargo 2, roll on/roll off 13, specialized tanker 2, vehicle carrier 2
foreign-owned: 19 (France 1, Japan 3, Philippines 1, Singapore 11, Switzerland 1, United Kingdom 2)
registered in other countries: 113 (2005)

Airports:667 (2004 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:total: 154
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 13
1,524 to 2,437 m: 44
914 to 1,523 m: 49
under 914 m: 44 (2004 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:total: 513
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 27
under 914 m: 480 (2004 est.)

Heliports:22 (2004 est.)
MilitaryTop
Military branches:Indonesia Armed Forces (TNI): Army (TNI-AD), Navy (TNI-AL, includes Marines, Naval Air arm), Air Force (TNI-AU)
Military manpower - military age and obligation:18 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; conscript service obligation - 2 years (2002)
Military manpower - availability:males age 18-49: 60,543,028 (2005 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:males age 18-49: 48,687,234 (2005 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:males: 2,201,047 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:$1.3 billion (2004)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:3% (2004)
Transnational IssuesTop
Disputes - international:East Timor-Indonesia Boundary Committee continues to meet, survey and delimit land boundary, but several sections of the boundary remain unresolved; Indonesia and East Timor contest the sovereignty of the uninhabited coral island of Palau Batek/Fatu Sinai, which hinders a decision on a northern maritime boundary; a 1997 treaty between Indonesia and Australia settled some parts of their maritime boundary but outstanding issues remain; ICJ's award of Sipadan and Ligitan islands to Malaysia in 2002 left maritime boundary in the hydrocarbon-rich Celebes Sea in dispute, culminating in hostile confrontations in March 2005 over concessions to the Ambalat oil block; the ICJ decision has prompted Indonesia to assert claims to and to establish a presence on its smaller outer islands; Indonesia and Singapore pledged in 2005 to finalize their 1973 maritime boundary agreement by defining unresolved areas north of Batam Island; Indonesian secessionists, squatters, and illegal migrants create repatriation problems for Papua New Guinea; piracy remains a problem in the Malacca Strait
Refugees and internally displaced persons::IDPs: 535,000 (government offensives against rebels in Aceh; most IDPs in Aceh, Central Kalimantan, Maluku, and Central Sulawesi Provinces); 441,000 (resulting from 26 December 2004 tsunmai) (2004)
Illicit drugs:illicit producer of cannabis largely for domestic use; possible growing role as transshipment point for Golden Triangle heroin



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